Absolutism – belief which monarch rule by “divine right” with unrestricted power. Exp. One of the country that exert absolutism was France, under Louis XIV’s rule.
“Divine right” of Kings – The Kings were given rights by god and should not be questioned. A popular ex. would be monarchs in England and France (ie Louis XIV)
Nobility of the Swords – Opposite of the Nobility of Robes, they were the original nobles who have had their office in their family.
Nobility of the Robe – Nobles who earned their office. They were the opposite of the Nobility of the Swords because they were made up of the 2nd estates.
Intendant System – created by Henry IV, which appointed the common people to preform financial, judicial and policing tasks for the government
Louis XIV “The Sun King” – Absolute monarch of France who controlled nobility by controlling their jealously. He no longer trusts the nobles due to the Fronde.
“L’etat. C’est moi” – “I am the state.” Words believed to be spoken by Louis XIV and demonstrate his absolutism.
Fronde – Rebellion of the Nobility when Louis XIV was a boy. This made it that the young king would never trust nobles.
Corvee’ – used by the French and the Russians as a way which required peasants to donate their service to the state. Exp. Louis XIV stated that peasants need to serve the state for 1 month.
Edict of Fountainbleau – This subjected all Huguenots to the Inquisition and was issued by Louis XIV and replaced the Edict of Nantes, issued by Henry IV
Balance of Power – Is an equal distribution of power to European countries among themselves so no one country is stronger than the other. This was made after the Spanish Succession Wars between Spain and Louis XIV of France.
War of Spanish Succession – A war which was fought because the European countries did not want Louis XIV’s heir to inherit both France and Spain
Treaty of Urecht – The most important Treaty, other than Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years War and helped established absolutism in France.
People of Western Absolutism
Jean Bodin – coined the word “absolutism”
Thomas Hobbes “Leviathan” – stated that people should give up their rights and agree with absolutism to be happy
Bishop Bossuet – A strong advocate to absolutism and was a preacher to Louis XIV
Henry IV – He created the Intendant system and was King of France
Duke of Sully – combined tax on sales of salt and the only slip up he made was selling political offices. He was also Henry IV’s adviser.
Louis XIII – The son of Henry IV who had to have Richelieu rule for him as he lived in the shadows.
Cardinal Richelieu – Regent for Louis XIII, he brought France out of debt, and issued many new laws which helped France’s economy grow.
Cardinal Mazarin – Regent for Louis XIV, he carried on Richelieu’s work.
Jean Baptiste Colbert – He thought of “Mercantilism” and promoted a self-sufficient France in order to make up for Louis XIV’s spending.
Phillip II – King of Spain who did not like Louis XIV’s supremacy and forced many followers to convert to Christianity.
Constitutionalism – a constitutional government which ensures interest of the people. It has a Bill of Rights.
House of Commons – A place where bills were introduced, and thanks to the Acts of Union which helped ratify treaty for new Parliament, thus led to the creation of the House of Commons.
Restoration – Where monarch was restored and Charles II was put back on throne in Great Britain
Clarendon Code – It was meant to cripple power of the Dissenters and were a part of the Penal law along with the Test Act.
Test Act 1673- A Penal law, along with the Clarendon Code which served as a religious test.
Habeas Corpus Act 1679 – States that you are innocent until proven guilty, and went back b/t two houses, one being House of Commons.
“Glorious Revolution” – An English revolution which over threw King James II
Bill of Rights – Was created after “Glorious…