During late Stone Age, northeastern African communities exchanged materials and shared agriculture which helped to pave the way for development of the civilization. Around 3100 B.C., separate upper and lower Egypt were united by King Menes(Narmer) who would become the Pharaoh of Dynasty one. He founded the capital of ancient Egypt at White walls which would later become Memphis. Moreover, early Old Kingdom period(2686 BC-2181 BC), saw the development of the foundations of Egyptian society. For example, kingship was developed where the king or pharaoh was a godlike being and held absolute power. Another development was agriculture where annual flooding of the Nile River provided necessary irrigation and fertilization each year. Agriculture also formed the economic base for ancient Egypt.
During the third, fourth and fifth dynasties, Ancient Egypt enjoyed a golden age of prosperity and peace. The pharaohs held absolute power and provided a strong government with help of a strong bureaucracy. In addition, the military conquests in foreign lands such as Nubia and Libya added to its prosperity. During this time, The Pyramids at Giza were also built as a tomb for the Pharaoh Khufu(Chepos), Chefren and Mycerinus. Moreover, Art during the Old kingdom reflected order and preservation of life into the afterlife. Ancient Egyptians held importance in the belief of the afterlife where bodies of the deceased were mummified so it would preserve the soul into the afterlife. Furthermore, Egyptian religion developed around deities and nature spirits that were responsible all aspects of existence and inspired rituals that affected Egyptian daily life. Lastly, for over the course of fifth and sixth dynasty, the pharaoh’s wealth steadily depleted, and his absolute power was questioned by growth in influence of nobility and priesthood. Therefore, the Old kingdom’s period ended in turmoil.
The Middle Kingdom(2040BC-1786BC)