Ancient World Unit 1 Study Guide Essay

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-Ancient Greece’s Geography affected the economies of each peoples (sea allowed trade between lands, mountains prohibited trade between peoples on Greece, infertile land), the politics (separated into different societies), and cultures (arts, religion, architecture).

-Located on the island Crete, with capital, Knossos, which had a very complex palace (architecture, structure, design) with indoor plumbing, separate rooms, etc; partly restored by Sir Arthur Evans
-Called “Minoans” after mythical King Minos. King Minos conquered Athens, but his son was killed in the process, so in revenge, he demanded that 14 Athenians came to Crete yearly to be fed to the Minotaur. Theseus, an Athenian, goes to face Minos, kill the Minotaur, love his daughter, but drops the daughter off on an island and goes home to Athens.
-Writing: “Linear A,” main language/text
-Sea-faring people, had a empire that traded with others via the sea
-Traded and made contact with the Mycenaeans, who were the first people to settle on the mainland of Greece
-ART FORM: Frescoes (painting made on wet plaster, all over the Knossos palace)
-Met its end with a volcanic eruption which caused several catastrophes, and were finally invaded, sacked, and pillaged by the Mycenaeans

-From Mycenae, their original city on the Peloponnesus
-Mycenae was a major city known for big buildings with stone walls for protection from attack
-Used a form of early Greek, “Linear B”
-Social order with kings, priests, bureaucrats, peasants, soldiers, artisans, slaves
-Known for pottery, traded with Minoans, found in Asia Minor
-War-based culture, decided to invade Minoans, participated in the Trojan War
-Civilization ended by continual warfare

-Occurred when the Mycenaean civilization collapsed
-Shifting in population: Grecians migrated to various islands and Ionia (Asia Minor) due to declination of food production and population
-ACHIEVEMENTS: People started to make weapons out of iron instead of bronze which was more affordable; farming tools made out of iron sped up agriculture and food production; towards the end, the Phoenician Alphabet was developed, consisting of 24 letters, literacy rate increased; because of the new alphabet, Homer’s epic poetry became legendary
-Homer was a blind poet; wrote epic poetry based on oral tradition about the Trojan War (Iliad, Odyssey); Homer solidified these stories and made history ~GEOMETRIC AGE (1200-750 BCE)~
-ART: Pottery with angular figures and designs to enhance the shape of the vase
-SCULPTURE: Basic, usually having to do with religion and nature
-ARCHITECTURE: Dorian Architecture (defensive walls with no adornment or decorum)

-Formation of the polis
-New “way of war”: hoplite infantrymen army in phalanxes, specialized in short-range combat, heavily disciplined and unified
-Rise in population
-Aristocrats and Nobles took the land, had wealth when peasants bought land
-Development of colonies due to overpopulation with a metropolis (mother polis), or main city
-Diffusion of Greek culture due to colonization
-Created a better sense of Greek identity between peoples (Pan Hellenism), patriotism, became aware of linguistic and cultural similarities
-Tyrants began to take over poleis by force with the help of mercenaries, government was constantly changing

-Located on the Peloponnesus
-Had social classes including Spartiates (regular Spartan citizens), Perioikoi (half-citizens), and Helots (slaves that were bound to the land)
-Lycurgan Reforms occurred in 700s, changed Sparta way of life
-Took on a severe isolationist foreign policy
-Made an alliance that included all Peloponnesian states (Peloponnesian League), to solidify power

-Located on Attica Peninsula
-Ruled by aristocrats and a council of 9 archons or nobles
-Athenian farmers suffered