- Annotated Bibliography
Heilman, M. E., Elizabeth J. P. (2007) Gender Stereotypes in the Workplace: Obstacles to Women's Career Progress. Advances in Group Processes, 24, 47-77. This article was written by two Psychology professors of New York University, Madeline Heilman and Elizabeth J. Parks- Stamm. It covers how gender stereotypes hinder women’s advances in work place. In this article, the author discusses about gender stereotypes from both descriptive and prescriptive points of view. Descriptive stereotype talks about what men and women are like and prescriptive stereotype discusses about what men and women should be like. In descriptive stereotype, Heilman(1983) mentioned that there is a perceived “lack of fit” between women’s assumed capabilities and the presumed requirements of a position. Prescriptive point talks about women should be communally without any agentic behaviour. Research shows women who are being successful in a male working field are regard as undesirable or disliked people. (Heilman, Block, & Martell, 1995) The research of this journal only discusses about western society. Nevertheless, the concept of “men are superior to women” is stronger in Asia. If the research could make a comparison between western and eastern society would be clearer to know the differences in gender stereotypes. In general, this study has given many evidences to show the gender stereotypes still exist in modern society.
Glenice W. (2008). Gender stereotypical attitudes: past, present and future influences on women's career advancement. Equal Opportunities International, 27(7), 613-628.
Dr. Glenice Wood is the deputy head in the School of Business at Federation University Australia. In this paper, the method she used is a longitudinal way to follow up middle managers who had participated in a survey on attitudes to women’s promotion progress in organisation. The initial question was ‘‘How long do you think it will take before women in this organisation fill 50 per cent of senior management positions?” This research examined respondents’ previous answer and attitude changed or not after 8 years. Although gender equality in work place have been discussing for many years, most of the proportion focus on time flexibility and child care, etc. The outcome of the research shows most of these male and female managers feel that it will take ‘‘more than ten years’’ before female managers fill 50 per cent of senior management positions. (Glenice, 2008). According to research, it is possible that the negative stereotypes will impact on women’s personal motivation, self esteem and confidence negatively. The limitations of this study are that there are only a few participants was available for the follow-up study. But it can predict that gender stereotype is going to last for a long time.
Schein, V. E. (2007). Women in management: reflections and projections. Women in Management Review, 22(1), 6-18.
Professor Schein has been studying the barriers of women’s advancement in manage level for over 30 years. She started the research in 1970 and examined the relationship between gender stereotypes and