This article highlights the economic problems that are a consequence of the ageing population of Australia, as well as describing the major attributes of this age group. The authors outline how the ageing of the baby boomers, being the largest demographic cohort at 5.5million, will have a significant impact on Australian society.
This ageing will result in a substantial proportion of the workforce going into retirement, which has an estimate of costing $2200 billion by 2044 through tax funded services. This has led to a requirement of the government to introduce forced savings through superannuation, as well as an emphasis on individual and family responsibility over state. It is suggested that this demographic could instead delay retirement.
The authors highlight that due to the declining fertility and increased longevity there would be proportionately fewer young workers to replace any that retire, as well as many jobs not being based on hard labour means that the workers will not be too worn out to work during their later years. This article is somewhat limited in that it derives a lot of information from opinion rather than empirically based literature, however it is useful for demonstrating how age based discrimination can have large scale consequences.
Word count: 203, sorry
Thorsen, S., Rugulies, R., Longaard, K., Borg, V., Thielen, K., & Bjorner, J. (2012). The Association between Psychological Work Environment, Attitudes towards Older Workers (Ageism) and Planned Retirement. International Archive of Occupational Environment and Health, 85, pp. 437-445.
This article explains that the demographic distribution is also changing in Europe, with the fewer mature workers in the European Union remaining employed. This, the authors say, is due to a trend in early retirements, the reasons for which have been categorised as ‘push’ factors, ‘pull’ factors or ‘jump’ factors.
The article focuses on identifying what could cause these push factors, in an attempt to introduce policy to reduce early retirement. The two main ideas they consider include psychosocial work environment, which consists of things such as ageism or possibilities for development, as well as health related ‘workability’. What they found was, through the use of a survey, that psychological work environment factors significantly contributed to a large proportion of mature workers planning to retire before the pension age of 65.
What was interesting is that this recognition of ageism was found to be more prominent in men than women, something that was not considered in their design. This could be due to different social factors, such as a retired older spouse leading to a retirement before ageism may come in to play. This is important to consider, as with the current male/female distribution of jobs, varying policies may need to be implemented.
Word count: 203 again, oh no
Karpinska, K., Henkens, K., & Schippers, J. (2011). The Recruitment of Early Retirees: a Vignette Study of the Factors that affect Managers’ Decisions. Ageing & Society, 31, pp. 570-589.
This article talks about the increasing numbers of workers who retire before the mandatory age, who have since had to re-enter the work force. These workers typically have a hard time finding new employment at this stage, and this article seeks to explain the biases and stereotypes that may influence managers’ decisions about whether or not to hire a mature worker. It is suggested that, even though it is prohibited to do so, a manager may pass over an older applicant due to the belief that they may suffer more from health deterioration, be less productive and less willing to be trained. This study involved a test recruitment process that did in fact show that the managers were less inclined to employ older workers than younger workers. This