Three types of pupil subcultures that might be found in schools are rebellion (going against the rules, not doing what they’ve been told), retreatism (daydreaming and mucking about), and also ingratiation (being the teacher’s pet).
Marketisation and selection policies in some ways may produce social class differences in educational achievement. Marketisation in terms of schools is making it run like a business. In the past 20 years male and female achievement in education has risen but females has risen more. There is a highest achievement gap in GSCE between male and female than there is at A-Level or KS1-3. It is also seen that the middle class tend to stay in education longer than the lower class.
On reason for it producing social class differences is because of educational triage. This is where those seen as ‘least able’ don’t get help as they can’t or are seen to not look like they can achieve. Higher social classes will get more help because they would look more able due to the fact their parents will be able to buy them more/better school equipment and books whereas the lower classes may not come looking as good so the teachers may assume they are less able.
Another reason is because of cream-skimming. This is where schools select the ‘high ability’ students to get into their school and discourage the ‘low ability’. This means that it stops people getting into good schools. Higher social classes would be more likely to get into these good schools as they are the ones who can afford a good education and resources to help their children to learn whereas the lower classes would just make do with what the school has to offer/what they can afford.
Social class differences in educational achievement are the result of school processes such as labelling.
In Item B we see this as true because it says Becker found that teachers judged pupils according to how well they fitted an image of the ‘ideal pupil’. This is labelling as it is the teachers attaching a definition or meaning to an individual or group. This causes social class