Period 2 Biology
12 December 2012
Study Guide Test Review
CHAPTER 1: EXPLORING LIFE
• 7 common properties of life 1. Order 2. Reproduction 3. Growth and Development 4. Energy processing 5. Response to the Environment 6. Regulation 7. Evolutionary Adaptation
• Hierarchy Organization 1. Molecule 2. Organelle 3. Cell 4. Organ 5. Organ System 6. Organism 7. Population 8. Community 9. Ecosystem 10. Biosphere • Prokaryote Vs. Eukaryote
1. First to evolve 2. Much smaller and simpler 3. Bacteria uses it 1. Eukaryote 1. In plants, animals, and fungi 2. Includes organelles 3. Includes a nucleus
• DNA, Genes 1. DNA is used as genetic information 2. Height, Eyes, Hair, etc… 3. Taken from the father and the mother
• 3 Domains and Kingdoms 1. Domain Bacteria 2. Domain Archaea 3. Domain Eukarya • Kingdom Protists • Kingdom Plantae • Kingdom Fungi • Kingdom Animalia
• Evolution, Natural Selection, Charles Darwin 1. Large amounts of evidence to support Evolution 2. Mechanism used known as natural selection 3. Selective Predation reduces the number of unneeded species 4. Descent with Modification
• Inductive Vs. Deductive Reasoning 1. Inductive • Collecting and analyzing observations • Generalizations from a large number of observations 2. Deductive • From a general premises to the specific results • Prediction tested by examinations
• Pfenning Experiment 1. Designed an elegant set of field experiments 2. Test the hypothesis of mimicry 3. If mimicry is an evolutionary adaptation that reduces the chance of the animal being eaten
1. The Scientific Method • The Process 1. Ask and define the question. 2. Gather information and resources through observation. 3. Form a hypothesis. 4. Perform one or more experiments and collect and sort data. 5. Analyze the data. 6. Interpret the data and make conclusions that point to a hypothesis. 7. Formulate a "final" or "finished" hypothesis.
• What is a theory? 1. A supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, esp. one based on general principles independent of the thing to be
• How to design an experiment? 1. Create two reasonable hypotheses based on past experience to lead to predictions to test with experiments and further observations.
• Metric Measurements & Conversions 1. C to F first deduct 32, Multiply by 5 then Divide by 8 2. F to C Multiply by 9, Divide by 5, Add 32
• Creating and Reading Graphs 1. Display data so that it can be easily understood. You can use graphs to compare sets of data. 2. A bar graph is a graph that uses bars to show data. The bars on a bar graph can be horizontal or vertical.
• Explaining Variation in Data 1. explained variation measures the proportion to which a mathematical model accounts for the variation
• Constants o In order for the results to be valid, the dependent variable can only be affected by the independent variable, so something’s need to be kept Constant. o The things that need to be kept constant are called Controlled variables. Even if controlled variables are affecting the dependent variable.
• Control and Experimental Groups o A control group is a group separated from the rest of the