In ________ organisms, the primary function of a gene is to participate in regulating the body as a whole and not to responding to the cell’s immediate environment. | mulitcellular | The maintenance of a constant environment in a cell is called | Homeostasis | A bacterial cell takes advantage of changing _______ conditions through control of gene expression. | Environmental | The most common form of regulation in bacteria and eukaryotes is | Transcriptional control | All regulatory proteins have common DNA binding motifs, which are particular bends in their protein chains that permit them to interlock with the | Major groove of the DNA helix | Regulatory proteins shut off transcription by binding to a site immediately in front of the promoter and often even overlapping the promoter. This site is referred to as the | Operator site | Enhancers are the binding sites for the | Gli proteins | DNA methylation, adding a methyl group to DNA nucleotides, in vertebrates ensures that | Specific methylation patterns are passed onto progency cells. | Histones are tightly packed into ________, which are located within the DNA. | Chromatin fibers | In gene regulation, negative control is exerted by a | Repressor | In gene regulation, a gene is “turned on’ by a | Activator | Small RNAs can regulate gene expression. One type, called micro RNA (miRNA), acts by binding directly to | mRNA | What must happen for transcription to be initiated | RNA polymerase has to have access to the DNA double helix and must be capable of binding to the genes promoter | When E. Coli cells produce the amino acid tryptophan, a cluster of five genes is transcribed together. This cluster of genes is referred to as the | Trp operon | The proteins necessary for the use of lactose in E. coli are collectively called the | Lac operon | Messenger RNA molecules are copies of DNA; they travel to the ribosomes to direct the assembly of | Polypeptides | The coded order of nucleotides in a DNA specifies the order of specific amino acids to be assembled into a polypeptide chain. The code is therefore called the ______ code | Genetic | Gene _______ refers to the combined processes of transcription and translation. | Expression | When multiple snRNPs combine to form a larger complex called a ______ the intron loops out and is excised. | Spliceosome | The connection that exists between genes and hereditary traits requires the
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
The process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs.
The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.…
During transcription in cells, transcriptional regulators that bind to DNA
thousands of nucleotides away from a gene’s promoter can affect a gene’s transcription.
15. In principle, different cell types can an organism having three different types of transcription regulator and thousands of genes create?
A) up to 4
B) up to 8
16. Combinatorial control of gene expression .…
Epigenetics talks about how gene functions can be changed by not changing the DNA sequences at all. The field of epigenetics is among the fastest moving area in the molecular biology, it opens up an unprecedented research projects and analysis of epigenetic mechanisms. They also open up ideas for early diagnosis and treatments for cancers.
Epigenetic regulation of the genes influences the gene expression by different mechanisms.…
This type of replication is called discontinuous
d)5’ to 3’ end
3) Gene Expression
a) What Gene Expression Means
Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein.
b)Central Dogma describes the flow of genetic information within a biological system.(dna->rna->protein).
c) The same genes are in every cell of the body but what differentiates one cell from another is which genes are “turned on” and which are “turned off”.…
Developmental Biology. 6th edition.
Gilbert SF. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000.
Form of cell death, also known as programmed cell death, in which a ‘suicide’ program is activated within the cell, leading to fragmentation of the DNA, shrinkage of the cytoplasm, membrane changes and cell death without lysis or damage to neighboring cells. It is a normal phenomenon, occurring frequently in a multicellular organism.…
An advantage of cloning is production of genetically identical animals for research
A disadvantage of cloning is generic variability decreases
An example of natural human cloning is identical twins
Restrictive enzymes cut DNA at specific points to make recombinant DNA possible
A use of recombinant DNA is to produce insulin
An example of a dominant mutation is dwarfism
Gene expression starts with the transcription of the DNA molecule.…
(G) always pairs with Cytosine (C)
Review of chapter 5 before lecture:
Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information
Understand the structure and function of nucleic acids
“Central Dogma of Molecular Biology”
DNA v/s RNA
DNA sequence complementarity
From Chapter 5
Gene: discrete unit of hereditary information
consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence
in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses) “The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology”…
The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored.
We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Purple Kush using shortread approaches. We report a draft haploid genome sequence of 534 Mb and a transcriptome of 30,000 genes.…
A gene is the basic unit of heredity, an allele is one of two or more alternative states of a gene, homozygous means when being a homozygote, having two identical alleles of the same gene, heterozygous means having two different alleles of the same gene, a genotype is the genetic constitution underlying a single trait or set of traits, a phenotype is the realized expression of the genotype; the physical appearance or functional expression of a trait.