Learning Objectives For Chapter 5

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Learning objectives for Chapters 1-5
Chapter 1
Understand what emergent properties and reductionism are. Think of some examples.
Know the hierarchy of life
-atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere.
Understand how structure relates to function.
Understand how living things interact with their environment.
-How do living things obtain energy? How is this energy stored as potential energy and released as kinetic energy?
Understand and think of some examples of positive and negative feedback.
Be able to identify evidence for the unity and diversity of life.
Understand what evolution through natural selection is and how it explains the unity and diversity of life.
-Think of some hypothetical examples of evolution through natural selection.
Know taxonomy (how living things are classified)
-Domains, Kingdoms, Phyla, Classes, Orders, Families, Genera (Genus), Species
Know the scientific method. Be able to identify the following in a scientific study:
Question, Alternative Hypothesis, Null Hypothesis, Prediction, Experimental Treatment Group, Control Treatment Group, Constants, Variable, data, conclusion (inference).
Know the difference between qualitative and quantitative data.
Know the difference between a hypothesis and a prediction.
Chapter 2
Know the following terms and be able to distinguish between them:
-Atom, Element, proton, neutron, electron, matter, atomic number, mass number, atomic mass, electron shell, valence electron shell, orbital, electornegativity, polar, and non-polar.
What number distinguishes an element from all other elements?
Know how to use the periodic table.
-What do elements in the same period (row) have in common? What do elements in the same group (column) have in common?
Know what isotopers are.
Know the types of chemical bonds
-Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen bond, Van der Wals interactions. Understand how their used in Biological systems
-What determines how many covalent bonds an atom can form?
-What is electronegativity? What are polar molecules? What is a polar covalent bond?
Know what cations and anions are.
Know the most abundant elements in living things.
Understand the importance of chemical shape.
Know and understand chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium.

Chapter 3
Understand polar covalent bonds.
Know the four emergent properties of water and why they are important to living systems.
Know the definition of a calorie.
Be able to distinguish between specific heat and heat of vaporization.
Be able to distinguish between heat and temperature.
-How is kinetic energy involved in this relationship?
Know why ice floats.
Know why water is such a good solvent.
Distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophyllic. Know why a substance has one of these two qualities.
Know the following terms: molecular mass, molarity, mole. Know how to use and determine them in calculations.
Know what acids, bases, and buffers are.
-How do buffers work?
Know what pH is and how it relates to hydrogen ion concentration ([H+])
-How are hydrogen Ion concentration [H+] and hydroxide concentration [OH+] related to each other?
Chapter 4
Know what organic chemistry is.
Know and understand Stanley Miller’s experiment.
-What did it actually prove? How is that different from what it may suggest?
Know the difference