Diagnosis of developing a breast cancer:
For both male and female population risk factors for the breast cancer are similar: age, obesity, family history (genetics) of breast cancer and radiation. Unfortunately, female breast cancer percentage rates in Canada are among the highest in the world. The similar rates are in Europe, USA and Australia, while the regions of Africa, Asia and South America reveal lower rates. Among the Canadian population First Nation and Inuit women have the lowest percentage rates. These variations could be partly explained in different level of physical activity, usage of hormones, obesity indicators and screening intensity. As any other type of caner it increments significantly with age. “In every adult group breast cancer account for over 30% of newly diagnoses in women aged 20-49; 50-69 and over 20% among older women.”(Cancer Care Ontario). Favorably the time trends for the mortality rates in Canada has fallen extremely since late 1980s and mid-1990s. Mortality has been successfully declining in the long term among the age groups 20-39,40-49 and 50-59.For older women generation the mortality rate was stable until recent. This recent time trends notable declines are generally associated with two factors: first, improvement in screening and improved quality of mammography, secondly due to the therapy advances.
Traditional treatment of breast cancer:
These declines are generally attributed to two factors: first, improvements in screening, where development of organized screening programs, increased participation in screening (by women aged 50-69 in particular) and improved quality of mammography since the late 1980s have led to detection of more breast cancers at an earlier stage where treatment is more effective; and second, advances in therapy.
Although separating the impact of screening from that of treatment is challenging, Berry et al. concluded that mammographic screening and adjuvant systemic therapy have contributed about equally to improved breast cancer outcomes in the US.6 Figure 13.5 illustrates the increasing use of chemotherapy and tamoxifen, particularly together sequentially, over the period during which the mortality rate has dropped. More recently, targeted therapy has resulted in improved outcomes in patients whose cancers overexpress the her-2 oncogene. There is evidence that postmastectomy chest wall radiation has also contributed to improved survival in certain patient groups.7,8
72 Canadian Cancer Society/National Cancer Institute of Canada:
The introduction and now widespread availability of