Yet Texas has consistently had one of the highest murder rates in the country, demonstrating that the death penalty does not have a general deterrent effect”(Leven). And states that have abolished capital punishment show no significant changes in either crime or murder rates. The death penalty has no deterrent effect. Claims that each execution deters a certain number of murders have been thoroughly discredited by social science research. Second, it has been established that the death penalty is clearly more expensive than a system handling similar cases with a lesser punishment. "The median amount of $353,185 for authorized cases [of the federal death penalty]... indicates that cases in which a capital prosecution was authorized cost almost eight times as much as those death-eligible cases that were not authorized... there is no mistaking the vast increase in cost when the Department of Justice decides to authorize a capital prosecution"(Gould).Capital punishment combines the costliest parts of both punishments: lengthy and complicated death penalty trials, followed by incarceration for life. Everything that is needed for an ordinary trial is needed for a death penalty case, only more so such as more pre-trail time, more experts, twice as many attorneys, let alone the two trials instead of one: one for guilt and one for punishment and the series of appeals while the inmate is held in high security of death row.