Chapter 19 Exam Notes Essay

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Exam
T A B L E 1 9 - 1 (DeBruyne 503)
DeBruyne, Linda K., Kathryn Pinna, Eleanor Whitney. Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2011-06-20. VitalBook file.
Exam
Malabsorption can therefore be caused by pancreatic dis- orders that result in enzyme or bicarbonate deficiencies, conditions that lead to bile deficiency, and inflammatory conditions or medical treatments that damage intes- tinal tissue. In some cases, the treatment of an intestinal disorder requires surgical removal of a section (resection) of the small intestine, leaving minimal absorptive capacity in the portion that remains. In addition, various medications can damage the mucosa and impair the digestive and absorptive functions of the small intestine (DeBruyne 503)
DeBruyne, Linda K., Kathryn Pinna, Eleanor Whitney. Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2011-06-20. VitalBook file.
Exam
When malabsorption is caused by pancreatic enzyme deficiencies, all macronutrients—protein, carbohydrate, and fat— may be affected. When fat is malabsorbed, fat-soluble nutrients and some minerals are usually malabsorbed as well. Malabsorption disorders and their treatments can tax nutritional status further by causing complications that alter food intake, raise nu- trient needs, and incur additional nutrient losses. (DeBruyne 503)
DeBruyne, Linda K., Kathryn Pinna, Eleanor Whitney. Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2011-06-20. VitalBook file.
Exam
Evaluating Malabsorption
A number of clinical procedures and laboratory tests are used to determine whether an individual has a malabsorption problem. Examples include the following:1
❚ Endoscopy or biopsy. Direct examination of the duodenal mucosa with an endoscope may reveal physical changes characteristic of intestinal diseases that cause malabsorption. A biopsy can be taken during the procedure for later analysis.
❚ Hydrogen breath test. When carbohydrate is malabsorbed, colonic bacteria digest the carbohydrate and produce hydrogen gas, which is absorbed and later can be measured in the breath. The hydrogen breath test is often used to diagnose lactose intolerance, but it can also diagnose malabsorption of other types of carbohydrate as well.
❚ Fecal fat analysis. Fat malabsorption can be determined by placing the patient on a high-fat diet (100 grams per day), performing a 48- to 72-hour stool collection, and measuring the stool’s fat content. In healthy individuals, fecal fat excretion is usu- ally less than 7 grams per day under these conditions. Excessive fat in the stools is known as steatorrhea.
❚ Schilling test. The Schilling test helps to diagnose malabsorption of vitamin B12. After the patient takes an oral dose of radioactive vitamin B12, a urine test can reveal whether the vitamin B12 was absorbed. More extensive testing can deter- mine whether vitamin B12 malabsorption is caused by intrinsic factor deficiency or pancreatic enzyme insufficiency. (DeBruyne 503)
DeBruyne, Linda K., Kathryn Pinna, Eleanor Whitney. Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2011-06-20. VitalBook file.
Exam
teatorrhea (stee-AH-tor-REE-ah): excessive fat in the stools due to fat malabsorption; characterized by stools that are loose, frothy, and foul smelling due to a high fat content. steat 5 fat rheo 5 flow (DeBruyne 503)
DeBruyne, Linda K., Kathryn Pinna, Eleanor Whitney. Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2011-06-20. VitalBook file.
Exam
xalates are plant compounds found in green leafy vegetables and some other foods. The ox- alates can bind to minerals in the GI tract and form complexes that the body cannot absorb. (DeBruyne 504)
DeBruyne, Linda K., Kathryn Pinna, Eleanor Whitney. Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2011-06-20. VitalBook file.
Exam
Consequences of Fat Malabsorption Fat malabsorption is associated with losses of food energy, essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, and some minerals (see…