1 It is thinking of each part of the project as a system all parts together as one project.
2 The four frames of organizations are summarized below:
Structural: deal with how the organization is structures and focus on roles and responsibilities. It’s important to understand these roles and responsibilities when dealing with project stakeholders, especially in procuring resources.
Human resources: focuses on meeting the needs of the organization and its people. Project managers must understand various human resources policies and procedures.
Political: addresses organizational and personal politics. Many project managers fail because they do not understand the political environment.
Symbolic: focuses on symbols and meanings. It’s important to understand an organization’s culture, dress code, work ethic, and so on in managing projects.
Top management commitment and support is the number one factor associated with the success of information technology projects.
4 A project life cycle is a collection of project phases concept, development, implementation,
5 People in top management positions, of course, are key stakeholders in projects. A very important factor in helping project managers successfully lead projects is the level of commitment and support they receive from top management.
6 A: A traditional life cycle would be to design a product, build, and then test it. That is what Walt Disney does. Phase exits are very important for keeping projects on track and determining if they should be continued, redirected, or terminated.
7 The diverse nature of these projects and the wide range of business areas and technologies involved make information technology projects especially challenging to