AP US History
October 2, 2014
Chapter 2 Notes
As the Europeans began to arrive in the Americas feuds began to form between the natives and them. Through trading of furs and newly found agriculture, the conflicts grew heavily.
New Spain: Colonization and Conversation
Around the 1540s the Spanish sought to obtain as much gold as they could possibly get, looking all over North America. Although, they didn’t find any gold they discovered landmarks such as the Grand Canyon and fought battles against natives. Eventually giving up on the search for gold the Spaniards settled in Florida and from King Phillip II’s orders they slaughtered 300 of the natives. In 1565 they finally settled in St. Augustine making it the first actual settlement in the United States.
Franciscan Missions and Indian Revolts:
The Spanish began to adopt a new policy that would convert natives to Christianity called The Comprehensive Orders for New Discoveries. This new task let missionaries convert, not the conquistadors. They would use violent tactics to force upon the Natives their religious beliefs and customs. Initially the Native Americans put up with what the Spanish imposed, but when drought and disease began to kill much of their communities they began to distrust what they had actually offered. In 1598 the tension between them climaxed, warfare broke out and Juan de Onate began to ruthlessly kill and rape the Pueblo people. They retaliated, but Juan had none of this and killed over 800 of the natives. They became fed up with the way things were going so they migrated to Santa Fe. In 1610 they returned and reduced the Pueblos population from 60,000 to 17,000 in two generations.
Popé and the uprising of 1680:
In 1680 Popé and his Indian following constructed a rebellion against the colonizers, successfully causing them to flee to El Paso. They planted only maize and beans, the crop of their ancestors and tore down the Churches built by the colonizers and rebuilt sacred Kivas. The Spanish struck back and defeated the Pueblo people, which caused them to become their laborers once again. A similar defeat occurred in the 1700s in Florida when English Raiders defeated the Francian converts and claimed their land for their own.
New France: Fur Traders and Missionaries
France began to establish their own colonies in the new world as early as the 1600s in Quebec. The French explorers and priest essentially laid the foundation for New France whose economy thrived because of fur trading. In these new colonies the population was kept to a small number and migration was highly discouraged. Overall, the French established a good relationship with the natives.
The Jesuit Missions:
In the time period between 1625 and 1763 it was common for French priests to live with natives such as the Huron, Iroquois, and others. They began to understand Indian culture and respected it. Likewise, the natives welcomed in the French and viewed them as powerful beings. They grew skeptical though because the French would claim to protect the natives from natural disaster but, it kept occurring. The French eventually brought disease to the natives land and it wiped them out. Breaking their trust, in 1690 the French and their army invaded native land and burned most of it to the ground.
New Netherland: Commerce
The interest of commerce drove the Dutch to the Americas, establishing outposts along the Middle Atlantic Coast. With little luck they attracted only small numbers of permanent settlers. The Dutch truly focused on trading outside of the Americas and paid little attention to their colonies in the US. This caused the English to take control of their colonies in 1664.
Settling the Tobacco Colonies:
The colonization of the region of Chesapeake marked a successful entrance of the English to the new world. The English eager to establish an economy set an outpost in Jamestown, Virgina in 1607. The settlers didn’t rely on the natives