Language- a System for encoding and decoding Information * Its Symbols are arbitrary * Language is composed of several interrelated parts which work together to create meanings.
Components of Language Phonemes – Sound system of language ( Vowels Consonants and diphthongs)
Morphemes – smallest units that have an arbitrary meaning in language
Syntax – the rules by which we put words together
Semantics – the study of meaning -Denotative Meaning – socially agreed upon meaning , Dictionary or literal meaning . -Connotative meaning- other/secondary meanings
Pragmatics – the patterns or rules people use in specific situations - Direct vs . Indirect speech acts
Influences on Verbal Communication Regionality– Geographic region strongly influence people’s language use Dialect – A variation on language based on its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Age – Text Messagr Shortcuts Education and Occupation _ Jargon – Specialized terms that develop in may professions. Story Telling & Rumors * Leveling/Flattening
** the elimination of some details. * Sharpening
** an emphasis of other details * Assimilation
** Making the story more coherent and intresting to the listeners. Listening - the active process of receiving assigning meaning yo , and responding to spoken and/ or nonverbal messages.
Listening Style – the method a person uses when listening ** Motivation / Consistency
Detached - Withdraws from the Speaking – istening exhange
Passive – Receive information as through they are being talked to rather than as equal partners..
Involved – Give most of their attention : may be intermittent.
Active – Give full attention : expend a lot of energy participating in the speaking – listening exchange.
Stages of listening
Message / Stimuls Stage 1 : Sensing/ “hearing” Stage 2 : Understanding/ Interperting Stage 3 : Evaluating/ Reaction Improving Your Listening ( P. 134) Keep an Open Mind - Defensive Listening -Preconceived ideas
Monitor How you are listening Pay attention
NonVerbal Communication * Nonverbal behaviors that have symbolic meaning – all messages that are not expressed as words.
** Types of nonverbal communication
Nonverbal messages can interact with verbal messages in at least five ways ** Repeating ** HighLighting ** Complementing or reinforcing ** Contradicting ** Substituting
Why do People Lie * Self Focused motives * Partner focused motives * Relationship- focused motives
Deception – a message knowingly transmitted by a sender to foster a false belief or cnclusion by the receiver. * Falsification – you could lie * Concealment/ omission – you could tell part of the truth * Equivocation – You could be intentionally vague . . .
The Four Factor Model - explains why people behave differently when lying than when telling the truth.
Arousal – People are more anxious when telling lies. . .
Attempted Control – people try to regulate their behaviors when lying. . .
Felt emotions – deceptions is associated with negative feelings . .
Cognitive Effort – lying requires us to think a lot harder. . .
Leakage unconsios nonverbal cues that signal an internal state.
** Reliable Indicators of deception : * Increased Adaptors * Increased Blinking * Frequent Speec Errors * Increased Hesitations/pauses
** Unreliable indicators of deception: * Eye Contact * Smiling * Hurried Speech * Other Facial Expressions
Most of us think we are great lie detectors; we are not !
The Body & The Face
Kenesics – the study of body movements ( and facial