Chapter Summary: The Conquests Of The New World

Submitted By stasg06
Words: 2256
Pages: 10

Anthony Gallo
June 2, 2012
Chapter 1/ assignment 1

1. “Then the hard, dry Spaniards came exploring through, greedy and realistic, and their greed was for gold or God. They collected souls as they collected jewels. They gathered mountains and valleys, rivers and whole horizons, the way a man might now gain title to building lots.” ( John Steinbeck). That quote by John Steinbeck is a perfect description of how the Spaniards treated the Indians when they conquered the new world. Inspired by a search for wealth, national glory, and the desire to spread Christianity Spaniards brutally enslaved and “brainwashed” millions of Indians through out the Americas. The orders that were instructed by Spanish explorers were known as the encomienda system (which was later abolished and over ridden by the repartimiento system), which is similar to the feudal system in which mid-evil empires used to take control. The whole conquest of coming to the new land to spread Christianity and search for wealth all began from the development of the caravel, a ship that was capable to travel long distance and carry many goods back to the home land. Another device that helped start the conquests to the new lands was the discovery of the compass. Which helped sailors determine the direction that they were sailing. Inspired by all these new developments King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain agreed to be sponsors to help the sailors peruse their conquest. The marriage of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella was important to Spain because it helped complete the reconquista, which is known as the “reconquest” of Spain from the African Muslims who had occupied part of south Spain for centuries. After the reconquista Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand ordered all Muslims to either convert to Catholicism or leave the country. This was the first of many more conquest by the Spaniards to help spread the religion of Catholicism. Two other main Conquest by the Spaniards was the conquest of the Aztecs by Hernando Cortez to help conquer which is know known as Mexico City, and seconded the conquest of the Incas by Francisco Pizzaro in the mid 1500’s. After failed attempts by Spanish explorer Columbus, in 1502 Nicolas de Ovando was the explorer to establish the first permanent base in America that helped build the to come Empire of the Spanish. The empire of the Spaniards spread from Europe to the Americas and Asia. The areas that the Spaniards targeted were the regions richest in natural resources and most likely to have gold or silver. The Spanish explores mostly known as the Conquistadors violently and effectively moved their way through the Americas. The goal of the Spaniards was to transform the Indians into obedient Christian people who followed the same god they did. The ways that the Spaniards described the Indians were in words such as “filthy dogs”, “uncivilized people with to much freedom”. The reasoning of such cruel treatment towards the Indians was to save the Indians from heathenism and prevent them from falling under the influence of Protestantism. This act didn’t only destroy the Indians existing political structure but it also transformed their economic and spiritual lives for years to come. If the Indians of the new world didn’t die from being murdered/sacrificed, hunger from trying to escape, they most likely died from the diseases that were being brought over to the new world by the Spaniards. Two of the most feared and brutal conquistadors were known as Hernando Cortes and Nuno Beltran de Guzman. Cortes is most commonly known for his conquest of the Aztecs and his relentless pursue to conquer wherever he desired. Guzman on the other hand was mostly known for his brutal ways and his desire to take land for himself. After the word of what these Spaniards were trying to do some Indian tribes decided to fight back. The most successful battle known is called The Pueblo Revolt. Led by Pope in 1680 a tribe of mostly metizos (people mixed of