childcare unit 2 Essay

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Pages: 7

Unit 2 assignment

E1&2: during the ages of 40-60 months their social and emotional development should ensure they can initiate conversations and take account of what others say. Explain their own knowledge and understanding, and ask appropriate questions of others. Take steps to resolve conflicts with other children, for example finding a compromise. Children play co-operatively, taking turns with others. They take account of one another’s ideas about how to organise their activity. They show sensitivity to others’ needs and feelings, and form positive relationships with adults and other children. Where as a child between the ages of 30-50 months should hopefully play in a group, extend and elaborate play ideas, for example building up a role-play activity with other children. Initiate play, offering cues to peers to join them. Keep play going by responding to what others are saying or
Doing. Demonstrate friendly behaviour, initiates conversations and forming good relationships with peers and familiar adults. (EYFS, 2012)

E3: one theory that links to social development is Albert Bandura’s social learning theory in which people learn through observing others’ behaviour, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviours. Most human behaviour is learned observationally through modelling: from observing others, so you form an idea of how new behaviours are performed on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Social learning theory explains human behaviour in terms of continuous given interaction between cognitive, behavioural, and environmental influences. There are necessary conditions for effective modelling which are attention, various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. Includes distinctiveness, affective valence, prevalence, functional value. their characteristics for example sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement affect attention. Retention, remembering what you paid attention to. Includes symbols, mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal. Reproduction, reproducing the image. Including physical capabilities, and self-observation of it. Motivation, having a good reason to imitate. Includes motives such as past, promised and vicarious. Albert Bandura believed in ‘reciprocal determinism’, which is the world and a person’s behaviour cause each other, while behaviourism basically states that someone’s environment causes their behaviour, Bandura, who was studying adolescent aggression, found this too simple, and so in addition he suggested that behaviour causes environment as well. Albert Bandura soon considered personality as an interaction between three components, the environment, behavior, and one’s psychological processes (someones ability to entertain images in minds and language). (Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2012, December). Social Learning Theory (Bandura) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved December 17th, 2012 from http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html)According to Erik Erikson, the socialization process consists of eight phases – the “eight stages of man.” His eight stages of man were formulated, not through experimental work, but through wide ranging experience in psychotherapy, including extensive experience with children and adolescents from low, as well as upper and middle social classes. Each stage is regarded by Erikson as a “psychosocial crisis,” which arise and demands resolution before the next stage can be acceptably negotiated. These stages are conceived in an almost architectural sense: satisfactory learning and resolution of each crisis is necessary if the child is to manage the next and subsequent ones satisfactorily, just as the foundation of a house is essential to the first floor, which in turn must be structurally sound to support and the second story, and so on. (Child Development Institute ,LLC accessed 2012)

E4:
Child…