Information is taken in by the senses (input) then encoded in the brain where it is processed; this processing is followed by an output.
Memory is the encoding, storage and retrieval of information.
Describe the Multi-Store Model of memory
It is structural linear model.
Sensory memory (SM): capacity: duration: encoding:
Information is passed to the STM if we pay attention
Short-term memory(STM): capacity: 7 + or – 2 items (can be extended by chunking) duration: 10-20 seconds (can be extended by maintenance rehearsal) encoding: acoustic
Information is passed on to the LTM by elaborative rehearsal.
Long-term memory(LTM): capacity: unlimited duration: up to a lifetime encoding: semantic
Evaluate the Multi-Store Model of memory
Glanzer and Cunitz (1956) found that the first few words of a list (primacy effect) and the last few words (recency effect) are better recalled than the words in the middle of the list. The first few words are in the LTM and the last few words are in the STM at the time of recall. This is evidence for two distinct stores.
Clive Wearing (hippocampus damaged by viral infection) can no longer make new memories. This is evidence for a flow of information from the STM to the LTM, it is also evidence for the existence of two distinct stores. Furthermore he could remember being married but could not remember his wedding this shows that the LTM is not a single store i.e. semantic, procedural and episodic memory.
KF (hippocampus damaged after an accident) has difficulties with acoustic stimuli but no difficulties with visual stimuli, this is evidence for a STM made up of at least two stores which goes against the MSM.
However these are case studies, they cannot be replicated so the results are not reliable and as they are studies of one individual we cannot generalise the results to the wider population.
Describe the Working Memory Model
It is a functional model (it explains how memory works). It focuses on the STM and contains separate components.
The components do not only store information they also manipulate and analyse it.
Central executive: controls and coordinates the operation of the other components.
Visuo-spatial scratch pad: deals with visual and spatial information
Phonological loop deals with auditory information and is sub-divided into the phonological store and the articulatory control system
Phonological store: acts as an inner-ear and the articulatory control system acts as an inner voice.
Episodic buffer: integrate the information of the other slave systems and information from the LTM.
Evaluate the Working Memory Model
Baddeley and Hitch (1974): showed that participants can perform two task at the same time (dual task technique) as long as they involved different slave systems. This is evidence that the must consist of more than one component.
Word length effect: we recall more short words than long ones. This is because short words take less time to articulate than long words. This is evidence for the phonological loop.
It explains why KF could deal with auditory information but had difficulties with auditory stimuli. This is evidence for the existence for different slave systems. However it is a case study focusing on a single individual therefore the results cannot be generalised to the wider population. Furthermore it is not replicable therefore the results are not reliable.
Compare the Multi-Store Model of memory with the Working Memory Model
The WMM focuses on the STM whereas the MSM describes how information is processed from the sensory memory to the LTM.
Neither model can explain how we remember smell and touch.
The MSM is about structure whereas the WMM looks at the functioning of the memory
Both models can be used to understand brain damaged patient (explain)
What is a leading question?
It is a question that is phrased in such a way that it prompts a