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1. Al-Qa’ida- An international network of Islamic mujahedeen organized by Osama Bin Laden in the aftermath of the anti-Soviet jihad in Afghanistan. They were responsible for many acts of international and domestic terrorism.

2. Anders Breivik- A Norwegian right wing extremist who detonated a lethal bomb in Oslo and went on a killing spree at a nearby youth camp in July 2011.

3. Crucifixion- A form of public execution during the time of the Roman Empire. It involved condemned to persons to a cross or other wooden platform. The condemned were either nailed through the wrist or hand, or tied upon the platform; they died by suffocation as their bodies sagged.

4. Extremism- Political opinions that are intolerant towards opposing interests and divergent opinions. Extremism forms the ideological foundation for political violence. Radical and reactionary extremist often rationalize and justify acts of violence committed on behalf of their cause.

5. Jus ad bellum- Correct conditions for waging war. An element of the Just War doctrine.

6. Jus in bello- One’s correct behavior while waging war. An element of the Just War Doctrine.

7. Just war doctrine- A moral and ethical doctrine that raises the questions of whether one can ethically attack an opponent, how one can justifiably defend oneself, and what types of force are morally acceptable in either context. The doctrine also addresses who can morally be defined as an enemy and what kinds of targets may be morally attacked.

8. Theodore “Ted” Kaczynski- The Unabomber in the United States, who sent bombs hidden in letters and packages to protest the technological society. A case study in politically motivated lone wolf attacks. Also a case study of a medium degree of criminal skill.

9. Komiteh-Revolutionary tribunals established after the Islamic revolution in Iran.

10. Luddites- A movement of English workers during the early 1800s; The Luddites objected to the social and economic transformations of the industrial revolution. They targeted the machinery of the new textile factories and textile mills and weaving machinery were disrupted and sabotaged. After 17 Luddites were executed in 1813, the movement gradually died out.

11. Mala in se- An act designated as a crime that is fundamentally evil, such as murder or rape.

12. Mala prohibita- An act designated as a crime that is not fundamentally evil, such as prostitution or gambling.

13. People’s Will (Narodnaya Volya)- A 19th century terrorist group in Russia.

14. Regicide- The killing of kings.

15. Reign of Terror (régime de la terreur)- A period during the French Revolution when the new republic violently purged those who were thought to be a threat to the prevailing ideas of the revolution “Terrorism” was considered to be a necessary and progressive revolutionary tactic.

16. Revolutionary Tribunal -The revolutionary court established during the French revolution.

17. Saint Augustine- A Christian philosopher who developed the concept of the…