Consumer Behavior Essay

Submitted By jsca94
Words: 3377
Pages: 14

WEEK 2 – The psychological core (I: Motivation, Ability, Opportunity) (II: Exposure, Attention, Perception)

CHAPTER 2 - Motivation, Ability, Opportunity

Motivation: an inner state of arousal that provides energy needed to achieve a goal

Situational involvement: temporary interest
Cognitive involvement: interest in thinking about and learning information
Affective involvement: interest in expending emotional energy and evoking deep feelings about

Objects of involvement
- product categories - experiences - brands - ads - mediums - particular show in which ad is placed

What affects motivation?

Personal relevance: direct bearing on and significant implications for your life

Consistency with self concept: our mental view of who we are. The way you think others view you

Values: beliefs about what is right, important or good

Needs: internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal/desired physical or psychological state

Goals: outcomes that we would like to achieve

Perceived risk: the extent to which the consumer is uncertain about the consequences of an action

Inconsistency with attitudes: extent to which new info is consistent with previously acquired knowledge or attitudes


A goal is a particular end state (outcome) that we would like to achieve (concrete or abstract)

CONCRETE: specific to a given behaviour or action & determined by situation
ABSTRACT: e.g. to be a good student

Promotion focused: consumer motivated to achieve positive outcomes
Prevention focused: consumer motivated to avoid negative outcomes

Process: Goal setting > formation of a goal intention > action planning > action initiation and control > goal attainment & failure

Marketing implications of needs and goals * segmenting market based on needs and goals * creating new needs and goals * developing need and goal satisfying offerings * managing conflicting needs and goals * appealing to multiple goals and needs * enhance communication effectiveness


Circumstances causing increased perceived risk * lack of info * when offering is no * when offering is a high price * when offering is technologically complex * when brands differ substantially (brand differentiation) * when consumers have little confidence/experience in evaluating offering

Types of perceived risk

Performance: uncertainty about whether the offering will perform as expected
Financial: extent to which buying/using/disposing of an offering is perceived to have the potential to create financial harm
Physical: potential to create physical harm
Social: harm social standing
Psychological: harming one’s sense of self
Time: uncertainties over the length of time consumers must invest in the offering


Ability: the extent to which consumers have the necessary resources to make an outcome happen

Factors that affect our ability to process information
> Financial resources (e.g. money)
> Cognitive resources (e.g. product knowledge and experience)
> Emotional resources (e.g. degree of empathy)
> Physical resources (e.g. body power)
> Social & cultural resources (e.g. influence of social relationships)
> Education & age

> Time > Distraction > Amount of information
> Complexity of information > Repetition of information > Control of information

Enhancing consumers’ opportunity to process information * repeat marketing communications - simplify msgs * reduce distractions/time/pressure - reduce purchasing/using/learning time * provide info
CHAPTER 3 - Exposure, Attention, Perception

Reflects the process by which the consumer comes into contact with stimulus

Marketing Stimuli ‐ information about offerings communicated by either the marketer via ads, salespeople, brand symbols, packages, signs, prices, etc or by non‐marketing sources (e.g. the