ANS: This article is about how motivation varies with cultural difference and what are the impacts of cultural difference in perception of motivation drives to these variant cultural people .Author analyze 3 theories of motivation-Maslow’s Need Hierarchy, Herzberg’s Two Factor theory and Vroom’s Expectancy Theory to employees in USA and Japan; to two culturally very diverse country.
Author covers employee detail analysis of variance of cultural diversification in four work related values and behaviors: 1.) Individualism/Collectivism 2) Power Distance 3.) Uncertainty avoidance, 4.) Masculinity/femininity. These behaviors are important to analyze as these factors impact on employee attitude, leadership principle and motivation factor which impact their decision making process. It shows importance to manager of understanding individual values and behavior such that they can adapt to local culture and work environment to motivate their subordinates.
Employee motivation drives organization to achieve success on their goal as motivated employees are more productive and committed to organization. People with different culture have different way to perceive, express and attitude towards working behavior. It is important to understand their values to motivate them.
2. What basic assumption/argument does the author make? What facts/options does he present? How valid are these assumptions/arguments/facts/opinions in the light of theoretical development in the thematic field?
ANS: Author explores on cultural difference has impact on employee motivation. Motivational parameters of motivation theories cannot be same for diversified culture. So, to motivate distinct culture employee their values and behavior need to understand and implication of motivational parameters are need to be adjusted to their values.
He has studied three theories of Motivation Maslow’s Need Hierarchy, Hertzberg’s Two Factor Theory and Vroom’s Expectancy theory and examination of their implication on cultural varied employee satisfaction and motivation. For examination 4 important management values and behaviors are taken as parameter to explore significant difference in USA and Japan has been considered: Individualism/Collectivism, Power Distance, Uncertainty avoidance and Masculinity/femininity
Individualism/Collectivism: Japanese are group player and always prefer group values and committed for group achievement and hence loyal to the organization where as American are individualistic and more concerned to their own and their family achievements.
Power Distance: American prefers job autonomy and has lower respect towards management as practices of hiring external candidates for management position. In Japan, as management are mostly promoted from internal employee, has much respect and closeness to management.
Uncertainty Avoidance: Japanese employee always wants security on their job. So they are highly motivated by job stability and promotions or pay incentives. US employees are known for “Job-Hopping” and not much concern on long term security and incentives. So they are motivated by immediate pay incentives and future growth.
Masculinity vs. Femininity: USA and Japan are similar on this parameter of cultural difference as they both believe on masculine society. In USA women management is on the rise. Both cultures are driven by achievement and success and place their daily effort to achieve it.
Ratio basis on this behavioral parameter presented on this article can be summarized on below table:
Masculinity vs. Femininity
This table clearly shows diversified cultural difference. Author has analyzed how motivational theory can be realized with diversified culture.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy shows