1. What were the causes and effects of the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution? Pg 12 (JB 47-48) About 10,000 years ago people discovered that when they spread seeds for food they would receive crops. They also domesticated some animals.
Effects: People had a food surplus and no longer had to wander in search of food.
What impact did it have on the development of river valley civilizations? Pg. 12 (JB 48) People could build permanent homes and villages. Settlements became more populated. Social classes developed such as warriors and priests. People did not have to spend all their time searching for food and could do specialized jobs.
2. Describe the development of monotheism and its influence on later civilizations. Pg. 46 (JB 54-55, 72-73, 123-124) The ancient Hebrews did not believe in many gods, as did many other ancient civilizations. They claimed that there was one Supreme God and creator of all, who revealed himself to Abraham and Moses.
This same God was adopted by Christianity and Islam, two of the most influential and widespread religions in world history.
3. What 3 religions are monotheistic? Pg. 47 (JB 55, 123-124) Judaism, Christianity, Islam
4. Describe the development and beliefs of Buddhism Pg. 79 - 80. (JB 84-85) In South Asia around 500 BC, a wealthy prince name Siddhartha Gautama left his sheltered position and was shocked by human suffering. He spent six years searching for answers and realized the Four Noble Truths (that suffering is caused by desire and so desire must be eliminated). He also founded the Eightfold Path, which is the way to rid oneself of desires and involves meditation and good actions. By following the Eightfold Path someone can escape reincarnation and enter Nirvana (eternal bliss). They do not believe in a Supreme Being.
5. Where did Buddhism originate, and to where did it spread? How did it spread? Pg. 80 (JB 84-85) India, Buddhism spread to East and Southeast Asia, by missionaries
6. What common theme does the Epic of Gilgamesh share with the literature of other ancient civilizations? Pg. 36 That all people must die and a belief in the afterlife
What are some differences, and how might those differences be related to the civilizations from which the works of literature originated? Pg. 36
The afterlife in the Epic of Gilgamesh is described as a shadowy realm, whereas the afterlife in ancient Egypt, for example, was regarded as a Happy Field of Food.
Geography may explain this difference. While the Tigris and Euphrates flooded irregularly and was more destructive, the Nile flooded regularly and was a source of sustenance, which may have given the Egyptians a more optimistic view.
7. Describe Hinduism’s caste system. Pg. 86 (JB 83) The caste system of Hinduism was a system of social classes (castes) determined by birth. People had to spend their entire lives in the same caste and marry within their caste. The castes were, from least to most respectable, Peasants, Landowners, Warriors, and Priests. Untouchables were below the entire system—they performed the most despised tasks, such as handling dead bodies or sweeping streets. It was believed that if a person lived a good life he would be reincarnated into a better caste after death, but if he lived a life of selfishness he would occupy a lower caste in his next life.
8. What three religions share Jerusalem as a holy city? Pg. 46, 142, and 254 (JB 55, 127, 114) Judaism, Christianity, Islam
9. What are the characteristics of a democracy? Pg. 107 (JB 65) Democracy means “rule of the people”. Citizens participate in the government. It often involves electing some of the leaders and having rights and freedoms.
10. What statesman is known for promoting direct democracy? Pg. 112 (JB 65) Pericles