Essay 4

Submitted By drdangles
Words: 505
Pages: 3

DNA is a long double­stranded molecule in the nucleus of every single cell. The DNA is usually tightly coiled, which forms chromosomes, and is protected by proteins. Each of the two strands of DNA is made up of two smaller molecules. These two smaller molecules are sugar and phosphate. However, to complete the link one more thing has to go with these two smaller molecules. These molecules are called nucleotides. Nucleotides are adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. So to complete the link, one of the four nucleotides is linked with sugar and phosphate. The two strands of DNA are structured in a way that an adenine on one of the strands is always attached to a thymine on the other strand. The same goes with the other two nucleotide. The guanine on one strand is always attached to the cytosine on another strand. This makes the strands of the DNA molecules mirror images of each other.
Cells also synthesize proteins. Synthesizing proteins is a two step process for cells.
The first step of this process is transcription, which takes place in the nucleus. For the specific segment of DNA to be replicated into the RNA, which is the main function of transcription, a couple steps need to be taken. The first step in transcription is when the RNA polymerase starts to unzip the helix. The polymerase is used to “read” the DNA and to build a single­stranded RNA molecule as a complementary. Once the RNA molecule completely detached, another enzyme begins plugging in the RNA complementary bases. Just like in
DNA, cytosine is always a complementary of guanine. However, unlike DNA, instead of thymine attaching to adenine, RNA has uracil to attach to the adenine. The third step to transcription is when the RNA nucleotides link back together join the sugar phosphate backbone. After the third step, the completed messenger RNA strand detaches from DNA and travels to the ribosome carrying the pattern. However, before being read the RNA is