Exam Review Essay

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Sustainable Biological Resources Chapter 12
Sustainable Fisheries
Raise and harvest fish without taking from the wild.
Think Alaskan King Salmon farm

Maximum Sustainable yield
The amount that you can take from a species that allowing it to keep the same level overtime
McDonalds says that Filet O Fish the fish they use is inexhaustible. a large decline has happened to each species that they have taken from.
Cod -has gone down by millions of tons in the last 60 years
Orange Roughy

Overfishing could cause the collapse of all types of fish species

Fishing Techniques
Long line
One long line with a lot of hooks
Net held by two people in a river bottom has weights top has bobbers
Catches everything
Causes Habitat destruction
Rollers plow through anything in its way
Gigantic net that can fit 33 jumbo jets
Leaves tracks that can be seen from space

Traditional charter fishing
Other methods
Giving the fish such a bad concussion they die and float to the top
Once fish swim into the net there gills get stuck

Commercial Fishing issues
Bycatch—fish or other marine life caught unintentionally.
Can me limited if a metal gage only allowing the size of fish they are going for into the net.
Size issues
Marine Reserves
Fiji protects smaller reefs instead of one big park so that fish in different locations can have protection also.
Carnivorous fish they eat other fish
Low value small fish to higher value bigger fish not creating more fish.
Keeping large amounts of marine life in controlled conditions

Air Pollution Chapter 23
78% Nitrogen
21% oxygen
4% CO2

Primary pollution
The pollutants are problematic in the form that they are released
Secondary pollution
Chemicals combine or are changed by environmental
Decay product of uranium
Naturally produced in lots of soil and rock
2nd leading cause of lung cancer
15-20k deaths a year
Very avoidable
Home testing

Volatile Organic Compounds (V.O.C.)
Found in paints, cleaning products, carpets, pesticides, copiers, glues ect.
What’s being done to lower V. O. C.
Green Alternatives
Low/no VOC products
Cost effective
Productivity “sick building syndrome”
Windows that open
Faster Exchanges

What is Ozone(o3) Where is Ozone Found?

What Does Ozone Do?

Why is Ozone Important?
UV radiation is absorbed by DNA

What caused the hole?
Natural Cycle and variation
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’S)
Used as refrigerants and blowing agents
Extremely Stable(Mixed blessing)

Montreal Protocol
" Perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol.” -Kofi Annan, Former Secretary General of the United Nations

191 Countries
Phase-out by 1996
Fund setup to help phase-out
Hydrochloroflourocarbons, Hydrofluorocarbons
Less of an Ozone threat BUT may be really bad greenhouse gas
Plan to phase them out by 2030

The 50-year Road to Recover
Ozone is not always a good thing to have around:
Atmospheric Ozone: Necessity
Ground Level Ozone: Human Health effects
Ground Ozone

Constituent Sources VOC’s Nitrous Oxides


SOx , NOx , and CO2 can all combine with water to form acids
SO3(g) + H2O(l) -----> H2SO4(aq)
4NO2(g) + 2H2O(l) + O2(g) -----> 4HNO3(aq)
CO2(g) + H2O(l) ----> H2CO3(aq)

SOx from coal-fired power plants

Average annual pH of precipitation

Chapter 13 Non-Bio Sustainability

Smallest unit of an element having the chemical and physical properties of that element
0.1 nanometers (nm) nm= 1 billionth of a m
Construct comprised of multiple atoms of different elements

The Rock Cycle
Igneous Rocks- Melting and cooling
Granite, Diorite, Pumice

Metamorphic Rocks- Change temperature and pressure
Gneis, Marble
Slate, Schist

Sedimentary Rocks- Erosion, Deposition, and cementation
Coal, Shale
Limestone /