Chapter 19: Digestive System
Mechanical vs. chemical digestion, where each occurs, and how.
What type of contractions move food through the entire GI tract?
What is mesentery? What is peritonitis? What are some causes? why is it bad?
What effects do ACh (parasympathetic) and NE (sympathetic) have on the digestive system?
Mouth: lined with what type of tissue? What type of digestion occurs in the mouth? What is the function of the tongue, and teeth? know the # and types of teeth. How many deciduous? permanent? What material is on the outside of the tooth?
Salivary glands: components and functions of saliva
Pharynx: parts of the pharynx that food passes through
Esophagus: functions: passes through what organ? what is a hiatal hernia? what sphincter lies between the esophagus and stomach? What is GERD?
Stomach: gross and microscopic anatomy
What type of digestion occurs in the stomach? what does pepsin do? what is the pH of the stomach? components and characteristics of digestive juice…
Small Intestine: gross anatomy (what are the 3 divisions?) what are the sphincters at the beginning and end named? the small intestine is adapted for?
What are Peyer’s Patches? why are they located in the area of the ileum and cecum?
What is in intestinal juice? what is its pH?
Liver & gallbladder: functions and ducts
What does bile do?
How do gallstones form?
Pancreas: characteristics of pancreas and its juice (secretions)
Large Intestine: gross anatomy: what are the divisions of the large intestine?
What are the 3 functions of the large intestine?
What form are nutrients absorbed? How are lipids absorbed and through what?
How are most minerals and vitamins absorbed? Lipid-soluble vitamins vs. water soluble?
Chapter 20 & 21: Nutrition, Metabolism, Body Temperature Regulation & Fluid Balance
Explain what is meant by the terms fluid balance, electrolyte balance, and acid–base balance and discuss their importance for homeostasis.
Compare the composition of intracellular and extracellular fluids.
Explain the basic concepts involved in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes.
What are the major anions and cations for ECF and ICF?
Identify the hormones that play important roles in regulating fluid balance and electrolyte balance and describe their effects.
Explain how the body responds when the pH of body fluids varies outside normal limits.
Describe the effects of aging on fluid, electrolyte, and acid–base balance.
Discuss the components of metabolic disorders we discussed in class
Chapter 23-25: Reproductive System, Development,