Facts: Pakistan Essays

Submitted By shaheed95
Words: 1552
Pages: 7

Pakistan

PAKISTAN TODAY

Country Facts

Area: 803,940 sq km (499,545 sq miles)
Capital City: Islamabad
Population: 177 million
Population below poverty line: 43 million
Literacy rate: Male: 63% / Female: 35.2% / Total: 49.9%
People: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%Official languages: English and Urdu
Languages spoken: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun, Urdu, Balochi, English and many other local languages
Religions: Islam (97%), Hinduism, Christianity and others (3%)
Currency: Rupee
Major Political Parties: Pakistan People's Party (PPP); PakistanMuslim League - Nawaz (PML-N); Pakistan Muslim League - Quaid-i-Azam (PML-Q); Awami National Party (ANP); Jamiat Ulema-i- Islami- Fazlur Rehman (JUI-F); Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM)
Head of State: President Asif Ali Zardari
Prime Minister: Yousaf Raza Gilani
Foreign Minister: Hina Rabbani Khar
Membership of International Organisations: United Nations (UN); the Commonwealth; South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC); Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC); ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)

ECONOMY

Basic Economic Information:

Major Industries: Cotton yarn and thread, raw cotton, cotton fabrics, rice (EIU data)
Major Trading Partners: USA, Japan, Germany, UK, Italy
Major Foreign Investors: USA, UK, Switzerland, UAE and Norway
Exchange rate (on 26 January 2011): £1 = 135.68 PKR (Pakistan Rupee) US$1 = 85.88
GDP (mp) (FY 2009-2010): Rs 6,018,865 million
GDP (mp) (FY 2009-2010): Rs 6,212,576 million
GDP Growth Rate (FY 2009-2010): 4.1%
Inflation: (July 2009-June 2010): 13.3%

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Kashmir

The status of Kashmir and the history of events leading to its division have long been contested and led to at least three wars between India and Pakistan. India claims that the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir legally acceded to it in 1947. Pakistan claims that Kashmiris were denied their choice of which state to join and has since held that the status of Kashmir can only be decided by a plebiscite in line with UN Resolutions passed in 1948. Kashmir has been divided since 1948 by a cease-fire line, known as the Line of Control (LoC).

Pakistani-administered Kashmir is almost exclusively Muslim, divided between so-called Azad (“Free”) Kashmir and the more remote Gilgit-Baltistan, (formerly known as the Federally Administered Northern Areas). Indian-administered Kashmir is divided into three main and very different sectors: the Kashmir Valley which is mostly Muslim, Jammu which has a slim majority of Hindus, and Ladakh, which is sparsely populated and half Buddhist. Political orientations of people in Indian-administered Kashmir are not governed by religious identity alone. Each of these regions are internally differentiated on linguistic, religious and cultural lines.

There has been continued violence in the Kashmir Valley between armed groups and the Indian security forces since the insurgency began in 1988/9. Levels of violence have fallen in recent years, but remain high: from a total of around 4,500 deaths in 2001 (including over 1,000 civilians) to around 381 in 2009 (including 78 civilian deaths). The Indian security force presence in Indian-administered Kashmir remains high, and there continue to be allegations of serious human rights violations by both militants and security forces. The Pakistani security force presence in Pakistani-administered Kashmir also remains high with strong controls on freedom of expression and constant security surveillance. There are reports of militant camps in Pakistani-administered Kashmir. The Indian Government has said that levels of militant infiltration across the LoC have begun to rise since 2009 after showing a decline since 2005. (official figures say…