Short answer = 20 marks
Article summary = 17 marks
● Carbohydrates are made up of? What are monosaccharides/disaccharides/polysaccharides? ○ carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) are relatively small molecules. They are often called sugars.
● What is a simple carbohydrate? What is a complex carbohydrate?
○ Simple carbohydrates are sugars. All simple carbohydrates are made of just one or two sugar molecules. They are the quickest source of energy, as they are very rapidly digested. Some food sources of simple carbohydrates: Table sugar. ○ In food science and in many informal contexts, the term carbohydrate often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch
(such as cereals, bread and pasta) or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar
(found in candy, jams, and desserts).
● What are glucose, fructose, and galactose known as?
○ Glucose: a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.
○ Fructose: a hexose sugar found especially in honey and fruit.
○ galactose: a sugar of the hexose class that is a constituent of lactose and many polysaccharides. ● Where can you find fiber? Be able to identify examples
○ fiber is a type of carbohydrate that the body can't digest. Though most carbohydrates are broken down into sugar molecules, fiber cannot be broken down into sugar molecules, and instead it passes through the body undigested.
Fiber helps regulate the body's use of sugars, helping to keep hunger and blood sugar in check.
● Where does the majority of carbohydrate digestion occur? Protein? Fat?
○ Carb Small intestine
○ Protein Stomach
○ Fat Mouth
● Know diseases surrounding blood glucose ○ Diabetes, Adrenal Fatigue
● How many amino acids are there? How many are considered essential? Which plant provides all essential amino acids?
○ 20 amino acids
○ 9 are essential
● What is ProteinEnergy Malnutrition (PEM)? ○ Form of malnutrition where there is inadequate calorie or protein intake. Types include: kwashiorkor, marasmus etc
● What is the difference between a complete and incomplete protein? Be able to identify examples
○ Complete contains an adequate amount of all of the amino acids
○ Incomplete lacks one or more amino acids
● What are the functions of protein? Fat?
○ Protein transports oxygen, stores molecules, muscle movement, skin and bone support
○ Fat provide energy, absorb vitamins, store fat, maintain body temperature, protect your body
● What can happen if you have excessive protein intake? What can happen if you do not get enough?
○ Excessive protein weight gain, liver and heart disease
○ Not enough protein Fatigue, weakness, not recovering quickly from injuries, hair is falling out
● What is the easiest way to get essential amino acids into your diet?
● What are essential fatty acids?
○ Must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them
● How much energy should we be receiving from fat?
● How many calories are in one gram of fat?
○ 9 Calories
● What is a polyunsaturated fat? Be able to identify some examples
○ Fat molecules that have more than one unsaturated carbon bond in the molecule ○ ex. soybean oil, fatty fish
● What are trans fats? Where are they found?
○ Trans fats raise
"bad" cholesterol and make you more likely to get heart disease
. They also lower HDL "good" cholesterol.
● Know the different types of fat.
● What vitamins are fatsoluble?
○ A,D,E and K
● What are healthy fats and where can they be found?
● What do unsaturated fats help to do?
○ Although both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats