Essay about Goals of the Human Genome Project

Submitted By elpeeare3
Words: 883
Pages: 4

Lexus Ries

#1. The relationship between chromosomes and genes is:
· A gene is a short section of DNA, every strand of DNA has it's own genetic code which is a bunch of genes put together to form a genetic code. And the chromosomes are made from long DNA molecules. So when the genes are all together they form a chromosome. The relationship between genes and DNA molecules is:
· A gene is a short section of DNA. The genes that form the DNA make up a certain genetic code, which determines the characteristics of a living thing.

#2. The Human Genome Project was said to be so important because it uses information from DNA to develop new ways to treat, cure, and even prevent diseases. The goals of the project was to show the sequence of 3 billion chemical base pais that make up human DNA. There is 20,000-30,000 genes in human DNA and the human genome project identified approximately all of them. The project can improve diagnosis of disease, detect genetic predispositions to disease in it's early stages, ration drug design, control gene therapy, which is using genes to treat disease, and the systems of drugs, and it can also create pharamocogenomics customs drugs. The human genome project has made a huge difference in people's health.
#3. By having an incresed knowledge of the human genome project we have a much better chance of curing genetic diseases such as muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis. The human DNA has about 20,000-30,000 genes in it and a mutation in just a single one of them can cause a genetic disease. The HGP helped scientists pinpoint even the smallest problems in genes. It also helped find units of heredity that cause the disease. So there is a much better understanding of how to cure and prevent the disease. The bad thing about it is that we don't know all of it. They experiment on more and more people and could hurt them or even mess up their genes when they were actually trying to help.
#4. Gregor Mendel studied genetics and tried to selectively breed pea plants to produce more useful hybrids. He experimented with pea plants because they could be grown easily in large numbers and their reproduction could be manipulated. He noticed that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants change and go in a certain pattern. He researched pea plants but what he discovered about the pea plants also apply to people and other living thing because heredity is essentially the same for all life forms. He discovered that certain traist show up in offspring without any "blending" of parent characteristics. For an example, if you cross two white flowers, then the offspring would be all white. But if you crossed a purple and a white flower, then the offspring could be pink, white, or purple. He also found out that the pea plants could self-pollinate and/or cross-pollinate because they have both male and female reproductive organs. He sucessfully selectively cross-pollinated purebred pea plants with certain traits and observed the outcome over many of generations of the plants. In his experiments, the starting generation were all homozygous which means that they had two identical alleles of the gene for a trait. Such has 2 yellow peas or 2 green peas. The second generation, or the F1 generation were all heterozygous. Which means that they had inherited two different alleles, one from each of it's parent plants. In his experiments, he