Hardware and Maintenance Essay examples

Submitted By boriquanj
Words: 937
Pages: 4

Chapter 1
Key Terms
BIOS (basic input/output system) Firmware that can control much of a computer’s input/output functions, such as communication with the floppy drive and the monitor. P.26
BIOS setup bit The program in system BIOS that can change the values in CMOS RAM. Also called CMOS setup. P.26
Chipset A group of chips on the motherboard that controls the timing and flow of data and instructions to and from the CPU. P.9
Clock speed The speed, or frequency, expressed in MHz, that controls activity on the motherboard and is generated by a crystal or oscillator located somewhere on the motherboard. p.21
Data bus The lines on the system bus that the CPU uses to send and receive data. P.20
DIMM (dual inline memory module) A miniature circuit board installed on a motherboard to hold memory. DIMMs can hold up to 4 GB of RAM on a single module. P.11
Front side bus (FSB) The bus between the CPU and memory on the motherboard. The bus frequency in documentation is called the system speed, such as 400 MHz
Primary storage Temporary storage on the motherboard used by the CPU to process data and instructions. Memory is considered primary storage. P.10
Secondary storage Storage that is remote to the CPU and permanently holds data, even when the PC is turned off, such as a hard drive. P.10
Volatile Refers to a kind of RAM that is temporary, cannot hold data very long, and must be frequently refreshed. P.11

Reviewing The Basics
2. What are the four primary functions of hardware? To perform a computing task, software uses hardware for four basic functions: input, processing, storage, and output. P.2

4. What three things do electronic hardware devices need in order to function?
A method for the CPU to communicate with the device.
Software to instruct and control the device.
Electricity to power the device. P.4

9. Order the following ports according to speed, placing the fastest port first: FireWire, eSATA, USB. eSATA, FireWire, USB P.14

10. What are two other names for the system bus? The main bus on the motherboard that communicates with the CPU, memory, and the chipset goes by several names: system bus, front side bus (FSB), memory bus, host bus, local bus, or external bus. P.20

13. How is the best way to determine if a cable inside a computer is a data cable or a power cable? To know for sure what type of cable you’re dealing with, trace the cable from its source to its destination. P.7

14. List three types of ports that are often found coming directly off the motherboard to be used by external devices. Some ports on the motherboard stick outside the case to accommodate external devices such as a keyboard, and some ports provide a connection for a device, such as a CD drive, inside the case. P.8

18. Of the two types of storage in a system, which type is generally faster and holds data and instructions while the data is being processed? Which type of storage is generally slower, but more permanent? Primary storage is generally faster, holds data and instructions while the data is being processed. Secondary storage is generally slower, but more permanent. P.10
22. A power supply receives 120 volts of __AC__ power from a wall outlet and converts it to
3.3, 5, and 12 volts of __DC__ power. P.25

23. ROM BIOS or firmware chips that can be upgraded without replacing the chips are called _Flash ROM_. P.27

24. BIOS setup allows a technician to change configuration settings on a motherboard stored in Flash ROM. P.27

28. How many sizes of PCI Express slots are currently manufactured for personal computers? PCIe currently comes in four different slot sizes. P.23

30. From where…