Review of literature is defined as a critical summary of review on a topic of interest, often prepared to put a research problem in contest (Polit & Beck,2006). The review of literature in the research report is a summary of current knowledge about a particular practice problem and includes what is known and not known about the problem. The literature is reviewed to summarize knowledge for use in practices or to provide a basis for conducting a study (Burns, 1997).
This study examined the effects of Expressed Breast Milk (EBM) on behavioural response related to venepuncture in neonates. From the collected review of various associated literature and research studies, topics can be divided as follow;
Section A: Studies related to pain perception of neonates.
Section B: Studies related to non pharmacological pain management for neonates.
Section C: Studies related to expressed breast milk on pain management.
Section D: Studies related to using breast milk in other conditions.
Section A: Studies Related To Pain Perception of Neonates.
Brenda Clain & Zeev Kain (2005) stated in a study which was conducted in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit to assess the need for improved pain relief measures for neonates. The neurotransmitters and structures required for pain sensation as well as structures needed for long-term memory are developed adequately in the neonate and thus have the potential to affect long-term outcomes. The study indicated that the number of procedures to which each infant was exposed ranged from 0 to 53 per day. On a scale of 0 to 10, the average pain score in these infants ranged from 1.7 for a diaper change to 8.9 for endotracheal intubation. The investigators indicated also that approximately 40% of all neonates did not receive any analgesia at all during the intensive care stay. These findings point to the continuous need to educate the medical community regarding the long-term outcomes of pain management in neonates. In conclusion, the current research in neonatal pain makes it clear that aggressive pain control in the neonate is desirable not only for the management of current pain but also for protection from pain experiences to come.
Ann Victoria Myron, Denise Poirier Maguire & Jane Corrigan wandel (2004) conducted a study on pain perception in the neonate at Boston's Beth Isreal Hospital. Routine neonatal circumcision is still performed in most centers without the benefit of anesthesia. Newborns were frequently not given analgesic or anesthetic agents during invasive procedures, including surgery. The researcher concluded that the neuro chemical systems now known to be associated with pain transmission and modulation are intact and functioning in newborns. Moreover, although it is unclear that a neonate subjectively experiences pain in a manner similar to older children and adults, there is evidence of "physiologic and perhaps even a psychological form of stress in premature or full-term neonates" in response to painful stimuli.
Dodds (2003) conducted a survey on neonatal procedural pain among nursing staff in children’s hospital research centre, USA. A total of twenty one neonatal nursing staff were selected and administered a self completion questionnaire to investigate about attitude towards neonatal pain assessment, pharmacological and non pharmacological management of pain. The result showed that 48% of nurses using pain assessment tool and for pharmacological management 66% of nurses using non-nutritive sucking for pain management but other non pharmacological methods are rarely used.
Ivy Rouzan (2001) did an analysis of research and clinical practice in neonatal pain management. The purpose of the trial was to review the literature on neonatal pain management with a focus on historical misconceptions, ethical issues, barriers to practice, the role of the advanced practice nurse. Health care professionals agree that