1. Planning: includes defining goals, establishing strategy and developing plans to coordinate activities.
2. Organizing: is determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made.
3. Leading: includes motivating subordinates, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels and resolving conflicts.
4. Controlling: is monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
#2 Briefly list and describe the skills required by managers
1. Technical skills include simple things such as the ability to properly operate a computer, efficiently use the various software programs that are required in your particular environment, and handle other electronic gadgets that may pertain to your job function. These skills are especially important for lower level managers, as they are often responsible for training their subordinates.
2. Human or interpersonal managerial skills are knowledge of managers to work with people. One of the most important tasks for managers is to work with people. Without people, there is a not necessary need for management and managers. These skills will enable managers to become leaders, to motivate employees for better completion of their tasks, to make more effective use of human potential in the business. These are most important skills for managers.
3. Conceptual skills are ability or knowledge of managers for abstract thinking that means to see the whole through analysis and diagnose of different states and to predict the future state of the business as a whole. Why do managers need these skills? Firstly, one business has more business elements or functions as selling, marketing, finance, production… All of these business elements have different goals even completely opposed as marketing and production. These skills help top managers to look outside from the goals of single business elements and make decisions that will satisfy overall business goals. These skills are more vital for top managers, little for mid-level managers, and it is not required for first-level managers.
#3 Compare and contrast the two views of management control
1. Omnipotent view: The traditional view of managers is that they have virtually unlimited control over the organization and its purpose, functions and operations and therefore they alone are responsible for all its success and failures. This view is called omnipotent view of management.
• Managers are directly responsible for an organization’s success or failure.
• The quality of the organization is determined by the quality of its managers.
• The performance of managers influences the organization goals
• The ability of managers is to gain success and failure by their good or bad performance
• Example: Coaches, Faculties, Group leaders, supervisors etc.
2. Symbolic view: Symbolic view of management is the view that managers have only a limited effect on substantive organizational outcomes because of large number of factors outside their control.
• Managers are not directly responsible for an organization’s success or failure
• The whole control is not on managers, so the quality of the organization is not determined by the quality of its managers.
• The performance of managers is not influences the organization goals.
• The ability of managers to affect outcomes is influenced and limited by external factors
• Example: The economy, customers, governmental policies, competitors, industry conditions, technology etc.
#4 Outline the Strategic Management Process. BRIEFLY explain each step.
Strategic planning and management are more than a set of managerial tools. They constitute a mind-set, an approach to looking at the changes in the internal and