Organizational structure definition- consists of activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment.
Four types of organizational culture-
Clan oriented cultures are family-like, with a focus on mentoring, nurturing, and “doing things together.”
Adhocracy oriented cultures are dynamic and entrepreneurial, with a focus on risk-taking, innovation, and “doing things first.”
Market oriented cultures are results oriented, with a focus on competition, achievement, and “getting the job done.”
Hierarchy oriented cultures are structured and controlled, with a focus on efficiency, stability and “doing things right.”
Three levels of organizational culture- Observable facts- facts consist of the physical manifestation of an organization’s culture. Organizational examples include acronyms, manner of dress, awards, myths and stories told about the organization, published lists of values, observable rituals and ceremonies, special parking spaces, decorations, and so on. Espoused values- represent the explicitly stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization. Basic assumptions- are unobservable and represent the core of organizational culture. They constitute organizational values that have become so taken for granted over time that they become assumptions that guide organizational behavior. They thus are highly resistant to change.
How employees learn culture- Symbols, stories, heroes, rites and rituals
Cultures for enhancing economic performance- Strength- assumes that the strength of a corporate culture is related to a firm’s long-term financial performance Fit- assumes that an organization’s culture must align, or fit, with its business or strategic context Adaptive- assumes that the most effective cultures help organizations anticipate and adapt to environmental changes.
Process of culture change- 1. Formal statements of organizational philosophy, mission, vision, values, and materials used for recruiting, selection, and socialization. 2. The design of physical space, work environments, and buildings. 3. Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings. 4. Deliberate role modeling, training programs, teaching, and coaching by managers and supervisors. 5. Explicit rewards, status symbols (e.g.,titles), and promotion criteria. 6. Stories, legends, and myths about key people and events 7. The organizational activities, processes, or outcomes that leaders pay attention to, measure, and control. 8. Leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crises. 9. The workflow and organizational structure. 10. Organizational systems and procedures. 11. Organizational goals and the associated criteria used for recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs, and retirement of people.
Organization chart- a box-and-lines illustration showing the formal lines of authority and the organization’s official positions or work specializations.
Common elements of organizations- 1. Common purpose unifies employees or members and gives everyone an understanding of the organization’s reason for being 2. Coordinated effort- the coordination of individual efforts into a group or organization-wide effort. 3.Division of labor is the arrangement of having discrete parts of a task done by different people 4. Hierarchy or authority is a control mechanism for making sure the right people do the right things at the right time
Span of control- refers to the number of people reporting directly to a given manager. Narrow: limited number of people reporting. Wide: has several people reporting.
Centralized vs. decentralized authority- Important decisions are made by