According to Ogbannia (2007), effective leadership is the ability to successfully integrate and maximize available resources within the internal and external environment. Mayo and Nohria (2005) view ‘great leadership’ as a function of the circumstances in which the leaders operate. Whilst Ginnerr and Curphy (2006) portray effective leadership as a process in which leaders and followers interact dynamically in a particular situation or environment.
Effective managers and leaders need to act as powerful examples and role models based on the notion that most people are more influenced by what they see than what they are told (Hooper and Potter 1997). Research by Hay (1998) over a number of years has illustrated that leadership styles are important because of their direct impact on how individuals within a particular group feel, and the degree in which they are motivated to perform.
Blanchard, Zigarmi and Zigarmi (1995) stress that each leadership style is effective in different ways, according to particular situations. This is reinforced by Cranwall, Bacon and Mackie (2002) who promote the notion that effective leadership is hinged on selecting the right style for the right situation and executing the given style well. The most effective style depends on, and varies according to the task, people, and situation to be led. Therefore, the two approaches chosen for the group of children are transformational and transactional.
Transformational and Transactional Approaches Transformational is one of the approaches chosen because the leader has been characterised as one who articulates a vision of the future that can be shared with peers, and pays high attention to individual difference among people (Yammariono and Bass, 1990). They engage with others in such a way that the leader and the children can raise one another to a higher level of motivation (Kuhnert, 1987). Transformational leadership is an important coaching strategy to consider as it usually involves an active element. Students are able to engage and interact with the subject matter. The transactional approach has been chosen because the leader exchanges rewards for desired behaviours (Burns 1998). Transaction is an important strategy to consider when wanting to elicit more interaction and group work within the group. It provides more opportunity to create a ‘dialogue’ between the leader and the children.
Bass (1985) has viewed the approaches as being comprised of complementary. He integrated the both styles by recognising that they both link to the achievements of desired goals and objectives. In line with this, a leader and manager can use both of these styles whilst coaching.
Approaches linked with trust
Both the transformational and transactional approach link well with trust. Trust is important in this situation because trust from the leader or manager helps with communication, facilitates extra-role behaviours, facilitates learning and also performance quality and quantity. Trust has been described as ‘an attitude which can develop over time or very quickly, based on contextual factors and need.’ (Coppola, Hilts and Rotter, 2004).
While many styles of leadership have been examined in relation to trust in leadership, the transformational approach is the most widespread. This type of leadership adapts an approach, whereby leaders facilitate follower’s efforts to solve problems, and address future problems. (Bass, Auolio, Jung and Berson (2003). Several researchers have also found positive relationships between transactional leadership and trust in leadership (Butler et al,