Mango Wine Essay

Submitted By Jaspreet-Grewal
Words: 4785
Pages: 20

Introduction Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different types of wine. The well-known variations result from the very complex interactions between the biochemical development of the fruit, reactions involved in fermentation, and human intervention in the overall process. The final product may contain tens of thousands of chemical compounds in amounts varying from a few percent to a few parts per billion. Wine is a popular drink being enjoyed all over the world. In general, grapes are the main fruit that has been used for wine production. Though, the suitability of fruits other than grapes has been investigated all over the world, the amount of wine produced from non grape fruits is insignificant. In many countries, other fruits wine like apple (Spain, France, Belgium, Switzerland and England), plum (Germany) and pears are in large demand. Mango is one of the most highly priced desert fruits of the tropics. It has rich luscious, aromatic flavour and a delicious taste in which sweetness and acidity is delightfully blended. Mango production has experienced continuous growth in the last decades of the 20th century. The world’s total annual mango fruit production was estimated at 22 million metric tonnes. Global production of mangoes is concentrated mainly in Asia and more precisely in India that produced 12 million metric tonnes per annum. In India, mango is grown in 10.85 million hectare and it occupied 39% of total fruit production. More than 25 cultivars of mango are cultivated commercially in various regions of India. Mango contains a high concentration of sugar (16-18%w/v) and acids with organoleptic properties and also contains antioxidants like carotene (as Vitamin A, 4,800 IU). Sucrose, glucose and fructose are the main sugars in ripened mango. The un-ripened fruit contains citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, succinic and other organic acids, whereas in ripened fruit, the main acid source is malic acid. In developing countries like India 20-30% of fruits produced are wasted due to lack of proper utilization, post-harvest and processing technology. By converting the waste into value added products like wine is a smart solution for this problem. There are few reports on the suitability of mango for wine production. The research on this facet was initiated by Czyhrinciwk in 1966 suggesting that the mango is well suitable fruit for the production of fruit wine. In India, Kulkarni and Onkarayya and Singh have screened 20 mango cultivars for the production of wine. Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast which are known to produce different volatile profiles have been commonly used for alcoholic fermentation. But there is lack of information on mango wine production especially dealing with the suitability of local mango cultivars for wine production, other yeast strains, optimization of conditions of fermentation and characterization of its wine produced (both chemical and physical factors for quality).

History The history of wine spans thousands of years and is closely intertwined with the history of agriculture, cuisine, civilization and humanity itself. Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known wine production occurred in what is now the country of Georgia around 7000 BC with other notable sites in Greater Iran dated 4500 BC and Armenia 4100 BC respectively. The world's oldest known winery (dated to 3000 BC) was discovered in Areni-1 cave in a mountainous area of Armenia. Increasingly clear archaeological evidence indicates that domestication of the grape vine took place during the Early Bronze Age in the Near East, Sumer and Egypt…