AP Psychology Outline
Chapter 7: Memory
Red – Definition
Blue - Important Points
Green - Important People & Contributions
a. Encoding – Forming Memory Code.
b. Storage – Maintaining Encoded Information in Memory over Time.
c. Retrieval – Recovering Information from Memory Stores.
d. Forgetting is due to deficiencies in any of 3 Processes in Memory.
2. Encoding: Getting Information into Memory
a. Attention – Focusing Awareness on a narrowed range of Stimuli or Events.
i. You need to pay attention to Information if you intend to remember it. ii. Focusing your attention in 2 or more places at once causes large reduction in memory performance and motor performance.
b. Levels of Processing
i. Structural Encoding = Shallow Processing – Emphasizes the Physical Structure of the Stimulus. ii. Phonemic Encoding = Intermediate Processing - Emphasizes what a word sounds like. iii. Semantic Encoding = Deep Processing – Emphasizes the meaning of Verbal Input. iv. Levels-of-Processing Theory – Proposes that deeper levels of processing result in Longer-Lasting Memory codes.
1. Deeper Processing leads to Enhanced Memory
c. Enriching Encoding
i. Elaboration – Linking a Stimulus to other information at the time of Encoding. ii. Imagery – Creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered.
1. Easier to form Images of Concrete Objects instead of Abstract Objects. iii. Dual-Coding Theory – Memory is Enhanced by Forming Semantic and Visual codes, since either can lead to Recall. iv. Self-Referent Coding – Deciding how or whether Information is Personally Relevant.
3. Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory
a. Sensory Memory – Preserves Memory in its Original Sensory form for a Brief Time, Usually only a Fraction of a Second.
b. Short-Term Memory (STM) – A Limited-Capacity Store that can Maintain Unrehearsed Information for up to about 20 Seconds.
c. Rehearsal – The Process of Repetitively Verbalizing or Thinking about the Information.
i. Rehearsal Stores Information in your Short Term Memory for a Long Time.
d. Capacity of Storage
i. George Miller – People could recall only about 7 Items in tasks that require Short-Term Memory. ii. Chunk – A Group of Familiar Stimuli Stored as a Single Unit.
1. Storing Information in Similar Chunks helps for Recall.
e. Short-Term Memory as “Working Memory”
i. Alan Baddeley – Model of “Working Memory” of Short-Term Memory.
1. Phonological Loop – Facilitate the Acquisition of Language.
2. Visuospatial Sketchpad – Permits people to Temporarily Hold and Manipulate Visual Images.
3. Central Executive System – Controls Deploying, Switching, and Dividing Attention.
4. Episodic Buffer – Temporary Limited-Capacity storage for Integrating Working Memory to Long-Term Memory.
f. Long-Term Memory (LTM) – An Unlimited Capacity Store that can hold Information over Lengthy Periods of Time.
i. Long-Term Memory is Stored Permanently, sometimes there is trouble Retrieving it. ii. Flashbulb Memories – Usually Vivid and Detailed Recollections of Momentous Events.
1. Often Inaccurate Memories.
g. Knowledge Represented & Organized in Memory
i. Conceptual Hierarchy – A Multilevel Classification System Based on Common Properties Among Items.
1. Greatly Increases Memory Recall by Grouping/Charting Information. ii. People “Cluster” Items that are Similar to each other to remember them. iii. Schema – An Organized Cluster of Knowledge about a Particular Object or Event Abstracted from Previous Experience with the Object or Event.
1. People are more likely to Remember things that are Consistent with their Schemas than Things that are not. iv. Semantic Network – Consists of Nodes Representing Concepts, Joined Together by Pathways that Link Related Concepts.
1. Related Words are Easier to remember as how closely related they are.
v. Parallel Distributed Processing Models (PDP) – Cognitive Processes Depend on Patterns of