Study Guide Essay examples

Submitted By mimigrl7890
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Pages: 25

Emilia Olavarrieta
Psych 110
Finley 4:10-5:30
Learning Theory
Habituation: learning not to respond to the repeated presentation of a stimulus. Example: we can habituate to those close and present in our daily lives like our lovers or family.
Sensitization: an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus. Increased response to a stimulus after the first instance with the stimulus. Ex: if you are mugged at a certain park. Next time, when you pass through that park you will get scared. Example of negative response. An example of a positive response would be if you had a one night stand, and had a great night. The smell of his cologne stick with you and when you smell it again it makes you sexually aroused.
Classical conditioning: one of the important forms of behavioral learning. A form of behavioral learning in which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the power to elicit the same innate reflex produced by another stimulus. Example: this type of learning can help me anticipate and avoid danger, and cues alerting me to promote survival. If I was robbed in an alleyway, then being in alleyways may always remind me of danger, thus I would avoid walking through them.
Operant conditioning: A form of behavioral learning in which the probability of a response is changed by its consequences, that is, by the stimuli that follow the response. Example: in this type of behavior, the consequences of behavior, such as rewards and punishments, influence the probability that the behavior will occur again. If I was rewarded by my mother from getting A’s on my test, then I will be more motivated to ace my exams.
Reflexive classical conditioning: some of our reflexive classical conditioning might be salivation and eye blinks, which commonly occur from stimuli that have biological significance. Example: the blinking reflex protects our eyes and the salivation reflex aids our digestion.
Respondent classical conditioning: also just known as classical conditioning, type of a behavioral type of learning. Animals or people conditioned in this manner do not consciously learn the associations between the stimuli and the responses. Instead, because the pairings occur repeatedly, the conditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response unconsciously. Some instanced will cause an organism to repeat a behavior, or not repeat a behavior.
Involuntary classical conditioning: part of classical conditioning that demands an involuntary response from involuntary stimuli. The real importance of the involuntary response in classical conditioning is in dealing with equally involuntary problems, for example phobias. Since phobias are involuntary, classical conditioning can be used to bring somebody out of their irrational and involuntary fear.
Unconditioned Stimulus: In classical conditioning, UCS is the stimulus that elicits and unconditioned response. It provokes a reflexive response. Example: In Pavlov’s experiment using dogs, the food was the UCS in the study because it reliably produced the salivation reflex.
Unconditioned Response: In classical conditioning, the response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning. The UCS and UCR are connected and wired in to our bodies, so they both require no previous learning. This can also be called an unconditional reflex. Example: In Pavlov’s study this is shows when the dogs salivate over the food. The salivation is an unconditioned response. If I cry out in pain because somebody stepped on my toe than this too would be an unconditional reflex.
Conditioned Stimulus: In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit the conditioned response. Customarily, in a conditioning experiment, the neutral stimulus is called a conditioned stimulus when it is first paired with an unconditioned stimulus. The neutral stimulus in an experiment, for example a certain sound, will elicit