The purpose of the cell reproduction laboratory is to explore the similarities and differences between the cell cycle of normal cells and cancer cells. During the course of the experiment, three types of tissues, lung, stomach and ovary, were observed. Normal and cancerous cells were examined under a microscope and the phases of the cells were recorded in a data table. The experiment proved that cancer cells have a greater amount of division going on within the cell than normal cells. This can be explained because the cell performs differently due to the mutation being present.
Introduction: Mitosis is the sequence of events by which the nuclear material of one cell is distributed, by a process involving chromosomes, into two equal parts. (1) During mitosis the cell undergoes different phases; interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Interphase is the growth period of the cell cycle. During this phase the cell is growing, repairing itself, and maintaining homeostasis. Chromosomes cannot be seen but the nucleus and nucleolus can be clearly seen during interphase. The first phase of mitosis is interphase. During this phase, the chromatin coils to form visible chromosomes, the nucleolus and the nuclear membrane disappear, and a threadlike spindle forms between the pairs of centrioles. By this time the spindles travel to the opposite ends of the cell. During metaphase, the sister chromatids line up around the center of the cell and each one is attached to a separate spindle fiber by its centromere. During anaphase, the centromeres divide and the sister chromatids separate. They then begin to move away from each other to opposite sides of the cell. Each chromatid becomes a separate chromosome. The final phase of mitosis, telophase, displays the centrioles and spindle fibers starting to disappear. A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, as they stretch out and become harder to see. The nucleolus appears in each nucleus. Cell division is complete when the two cells completely separate from one another. (2) Mitosis occurs in all cells. When a cell is affected by a mutation, such as, cancer, the rate of mitosis is affected. This is due to the mutation acting differently than the way the normal cell acts. I hypothesize the rate of mitosis will be greater in cancer cells vice normal cells. __________________________________________________________________________
Methods and Materials:
Essentials of the Living World
Experimental Procedure: This experiment was conducted using an online virtual Biology laboratory. After clinking on the link provided, a window opened up showing a microscope on the right side and a slide carousel on the left. After clicking on the microscope a normal lung tissue sample was displayed.
The sample contains various cells in different stages of mitosis. The table of contents displayed at the type had labels and descriptions of the five stages of mitosis. There were blanks under some of the cells and the objective was to determine which phase the cell was in and drag the phase to the appropriate blank. After naming all of the blank phases, a check was performed to determine if the phases were identified correctly. After correct identification, the reset button was depressed and a different sample was selected. This experiment was performed for normal and cancerous tissue samples of lung, stomach, and ovary. The number of cells in different phases was recorded in a data table. This data was used to determine the percentage of cells dividing and percentage of cells at rest.