Motivation and Expectancy Theory Essay

Submitted By prijot
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Pages: 8

Define motivation. Use a personal example to explain how the expectancy theory of motivation works. Include in your essay a discussion of valence, expectancy and instrumentality.
Firstly ,I personally feel that we need to understand what motivation is before explaining the theory behind this factor.
In simple words ,motivation is the process of encouraging employees to direct their best efforts towards the accomplishment of organizational goals.It is a word prominently used to clarify why and how individuals get inspired for the work they do. A few therapists and researchers view motivation as the element that decides conduct and behaviour, as communicated in the expression "all behaviour is motivated" (World Book, 1992). A few researchers also view motivation as the variable that stimulates human behaviour. As per this perspective it is clearly identified that although our skills ,habits and abilities provides us direction and guidance but motivation is the main force that gives us the vitality or energy to make ourselves productive to achieve the desired goals of the organization.
EXPECTANCY THEORY OVER VIEW:- The Expectancy Theory of Motivation is a behavioral direction process theory (Porter & Lawler, 1968; Vroom, 1964) that we can always find at work in any association that has workers. Most workers come to work in light of the fact that they get paid, doesn't make a difference in the event that they love and enjoy the kind of work they are doing. Appreciating the work is another advantage all together. Workers for the most part settle on decisions from the opportunities that are accessible and the likelihood of acknowledging profitable results. This mentality aides decide the amount of vitality and energy a worker is going to use in accomplishing these objectives. The three key segments and connections in the expectancy theory of motivation are expectancy, instrumentality, and valence and all these three components are linked to each other.This theory is basically a combination of perpetual and behavioral aspects of many other theories.

Expectancy theory is comprised of three components: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valance.

THREE COMPONENTS OF EXPECTANCY THEORY:- In order to achieve motivation in its fullest sense a hurdle of creating strong relationship between the three components of this theory must be achieved i..e.. Expectancy,valence and instrumentality.

1.Expectancy(Effort-Performance Relationship)
"The relationship in the middle of Effort and Performance is known as the E-P linkage" (Isaac, 2001). "This part of expectancy theory is based on the conviction that one's effort (E), will lead to expected performance(P) objective" (Scholl, 2002). It is considered as the first segment of the VIE hypothesis theory; illustrating that all together for an individual to be viably persuaded, the individual needs to see that their true efforts will bring about a worthy level of performance.
The idea of perception is critical all through this hypothesis, as it explains that in order to encourage an individual to put their full efforts towards an objective, they require just to accept that their hard work will bring about a certain level of performance. An illustration would be, "On the off chance that I salt the walkway, will it be more secure to stroll on?" There are variables that influence the individual's expectancy perception.These include:-
Self Efficacy:- It is an individual's conviction about his or her capacity to perform a specific conduct effectively. Does the individual accept that he or she has the skills and abilities needed to perform well to achieve the targeted goal?

Goal Difficulty:-Sometimes organizational goals are set at a very high or excessively difficult level, that leads to low expectancy perceptions. At the point when people feel that the objectives are beyond their capacity to accomplish, the level of motivation become low due