The Article makes clear that employees are not only motivated about their pay and how it is not the thing that brings most job satisfaction. Concepts of the major theories such as Maslow’s hierarchy-need theory, Herzberg’s hygiene theory, Adam’s Equity theory, Expectancy theory and Achievement motivation theory are differentiated and explained. Job satisfaction is one of the major characteristic that all employee want, as it brings happiness, contentment and confidence in their life which in turn helps them to improve their performance at their respective jobs. These theories teach how job satisfaction can be reached and also it is a great tool for managers to motivate his/her employees, which in turn makes employees more productive and efficient at their work. This essay analyzes the advantages of motivation, recognition and reward process used by managers and different tactics and techniques involved in motivation process.
Motivation is a kind of inner power that makes an individual to work for his/her goals (Hellreiger 2004). It makes a person to use maximum force in a specific task. Motivation presents an individual with a necessary power needed to hit a target and also shows ways to reach a particular goal (Gomez 2004). In any kind of work one must be motivated to perform well and achieve the desired outcomes. Each individual has some of its own distinctive set of skills which are used by the individual every day at work. According to Podmoroff (2004, p. 64) there are some motivational need which are required by every individual. So these are spiritual, cognitive, behavioral, external, affective, social and biological needs. At a workplace setting according to Mayo (p.65, 1932) employees are not motivated by money alone, but rather they get motivated by their behavioral attitudes at their workplace. Motivation is extremely important in to excel at any work. Job satisfaction or dissatisfaction are deeply linked to the motivations in an individual’s life.
There are many theories of motivation and some of them are Maslow’s need-hierarchy theory, Vroom’s expectancy theory, Herzberg’s two factor theory, Adams equity theory, David McClelland’s achievement motivation model et cetera. The most famous motivational theory is Maslow’s need-hierarchy theory. According to Maslow’s need–hierarchy theory there are five levels of needs. These levels include physiological, safety, social, ego and self-actualizing needs. The lower needs must be satisfied before one can move to the next level of needs. Motivation occurs when one is constantly moving from one level to the other when needs are fulfilled from a particular level. Physiological needs lay at the bottom of the pyramid of needs. These needs are vital needs such as food, water, air. At the next level lays the safety needs. According to Maslow all individuals need sense of security and safety. Affiliation is the third level which includes need of respect among family and friends and need of belongingness. Esteem lays at fourth level and in this level feeling of achieving something, self-worth and recognition in one’s own eyes is important. Self-Actualization is the top most level of the pyramid of needs. At this level needs of other people are given more importance than one’s own needs (Bruce, 1999).
Arua and Ugah (2011) explains if an individual at a workplace needs more money to fulfil his needs which according to Maslow is a physiological need and this individual is assured that if he will work harder then he will get some more money. So eventually it makes this individual work harder and earn more money. Esteem and self-actualization needs of a person depends upon what kind of a job a he/she does (Arua and Ugah, 2011). According to Maslow self-actualization is person’s desire for self-fulfillment. Whereas the second theory this Equity theory. Equity theory is also known as Adam’s theory. According to Wilson (2005, p.