Learning outcomes 1: Be able to assess the development needs of children or young people and prepare a development plan.
1.1 Explain the factors that need to be taken into account when assessing development.
The factors that need to be taken into account when assessing and development are that young children are difficult subjects to assess accurately because of their activity level and distractibility, shorter attention span, wariness of strangers, and inconsistent performance in unfamiliar environments. Other factors that may affect a child’s performance include cultural differences and language barriers, parents not having books to read to their child and a child’s lack of interaction with other children. Consequently, assessment of infants, toddlers, and young children requires sensitivity to the child’s background, and knowledge of testing limitations and procedures with young children.
Informal relaxed settings where the child can be as much at ease as possible is recommended when doing assessment. Assessing a child within the context of his or her community and the interacting social systems, and taking into account the family’s needs, resources, and concerns affect both the evaluations and possible interventions.
When testing young children the examiner needs to take certain aspects into account. The young child’s immature developmental status influences the responses to testing more than older children or adults. Other considerations, which are important, are the socio-physical environment and sensory integrity of the young child.
1.2 Assess a child or young person’s development in the following areas: To assess a child or young person’s development in these following areas Physical, Communication, Intellectual, Cognitive Social, Emotional and Behavioural, Moral
Physical Development * Sleeps much of the time and grows fast * Tries to lift head * Starts to kick legs with movements gradually becoming smoother * Starts to wave arms about * Begins to hold objects when placed in hand e.g. an appropriate size/shaped rattle * Grasp reﬂex diminishes as hand and eye co-ordination begins to develop * Enjoys ﬁnger play e.g. simple ﬁnger rhymes * Becomes more alert when awake * Learns to roll from side on to back * Sees best at distance of 25cms then gradually starts watching objects further away * Needs opportunities to play and exercise e.g. soft toys, cloth books and play-mat with different * Textures and sounds. * Establishes head control; moves head round to follow people and objects * Begins to sit with support; from about 6 months sits unsupported * May begin to crawl, stand and cruise while holding on to furniture (from about 6 months) * Learns to pull self up to sitting position * Begins to use palmar grasp and transfers objects from one hand to the other * Develops pincer grasp using thumb and index ﬁnger from about 6 months * Continues to enjoy ﬁnger rhymes * Puts objects into containers and takes them out * Enjoys water play in the bath * Needs opportunities for play and exercise including soft toys, board books, bricks, containers, activity centres, et
* Intellectual Development * Recognises parents; concentrates on familiar voices rather than unfamiliar ones * Aware of different smells * Explores by putting objects in mouth * Observes objects that move; responds to bright colours and bold images * Stores and recalls information through images * Knows individuals and recognises familiar faces * Recognises certain sounds and objects * Shows interest in everything especially toys and books * Concentrates on well-deﬁned objects and follows direction of moving object * Anticipates familiar actions and enjoys games. * Searches for hidden or dropped objects (from about 8 months) * Observes what happens at home…