Mughal Empire Essay

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Pages: 15

Shāhān-e Moġul
The Mughal Empire
↓ 1526–1858 ↓

Flag of the Mughal Empire

Map of Mughal Empire in 1700 CE
Mughal Empire (green) during its greatest territorial extent, c. 1700
Capital Agra; Fatehpur Sikri; Delhi
Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai Turkic; later also Urdu)
Religion Hinduism, Sunni Islam, and syncretism
Government Absolute monarchy, unitary state with federal structure
- 1526–1530 Babur - 1530–1539, 1555–1556 Humayun - 1556–1605 Akbar - 1605–1627 Jahangir - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan - 1658–1707 Aurangzeb
Historical era Early modern - First Battle of Panipat 21 April 1526 - Indian Rebellion of 1857 20 June 1858
- 1700 3,200,000 km2 (1,235,527 sq mi)
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Humayun crossed the rough terrain of the Makran with his wife. The resurgent Humayun then conquered the central plateau around Delhi, but months later died in an accident, leaving the realm unsettled and in war.

Akbar succeeded his father on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah Suri for the throne of Delhi. He soon won his eighteenth victory at age 21 or 22. He became known as Akbar, as he was a wise ruler, setting high but fair taxes. He was a more inclusive in his approach to the non-Muslim subjects of the Empire. He investigated the production in a certain area and taxed inhabitants one-fifth of their agricultural produce. He also set up an efficient bureaucracy and was tolerant of religious differences which softened the resistance by the locals. He made alliances with Rajputs and appointed native generals and administrators. Later in life, he devised his own brand of syncretic philosophy based on tolerance.

Jahangir, son of Emperor Akbar, ruled the empire from 1605–1627. In October 1627, Shah Jahan, son of Emperor Jahangir succeeded to the throne, where he inherited a vast and rich empire. At mid-century this was perhaps the greatest empire in the world. Shah Jahan commissioned the famous Taj Mahal (1630–1653) in Agra which was built by the Persian architect Ustad Ahmad Lahauri as a tomb for Shah