a. Insomnia. According to the national sleep organization approzimately 10% suffer from cronic insomnia, diff. Sleeping or staying asleep. Some causes, pain from discomfort or pain, psychological from stress or anxiety from demanding or irregular school scheule.
b. Sleep apnea. A person stops breathing then wakes up coughing and gaging hundreds of times a night.
c. Narcolepsy. Serious sleep condition causes sudden unprebictable daytime attacts of daytime sleepyness or lapses into REM. Sleep. Usualy trigred by the same things that causes a normal persom to become excited. A funny movie, winning an award or sex.and anything that causes a normal person sleepy, a big meal riding in a car. Most causes of daytime sleepiness is staying up late or not letting yourself get enough sleep at night. Approx. 2/3 of all Americans get less that the caromended 7-8 hours of sleep. Most people need more that 6 hours to perform. Adalescence usually require 10 for peak performance.
II. exploring the dream world. Through out history every culture had had its own explanations about dreams why? For years researchers believed that everyone dreams most people who said they never dream will report them from REM sleep. There are cases of people who claim they never dream they have a brain injury. When we are dreaming we are focusing in but sometimes an axternal event can change the dreams content.
A. Characteristics of dreams.
1. Inward focus of attention. Dreams make sense while dreaming but recall may be strange. Most of us are unaware of our bodies or where we are when we are dreaming but some people who claim they know when they are dreaming and feel as if they know they are conscious.
2. lucid dreams. Lucid dreaming claim they can control the dream like a play also some report they are able to wake themselves up and go back and change the dream.
B. Theories of dreams
1. dreams as unconscious wishes (Freud). Sigmund Freud was one of the first psychological theorists to take dreams serious and he came up with the psycho analytic theorie of dreaming. After analyzing many of his patients dreams he concluded that the purpose of dreaming was to express unconscious wishes thoughts and conflicts. Freud also felt that if the dream caused anxiety for the dreamer the dreamer may have to distort or discuize the images of the dream the dream sould wake the dreamer. Freud even said that our dreams are our royal road to the unconscious. Freud felt that you were trying to understand a dream you need to distinguish between the manifest content and the layout content.
The manifest content- the parts of the dream we consciously experience during sleep and its what we remember when we wake up.
Latent (hidden) content- the unconscious thoughts and wishes being expressed in symbols. Dreams should be analysed in the context of the dreams contents. This doesn’t mean that every symbol has a meaning. Maybe a cigar is just a cigar.
2. dreams as efforts to deal with problems (problem-focused approach). This theory suggests that dreams reflect the conscious perceptions of our waking life-work, relationships, sex.
The problem focus approach to dreaming suggests that the metafores and symbols in a dream do not discuise its true meaning. Instead they help to convey it. Research findings support thte problem focus approach to dreaming because dreams tend to contain more things that a person is concerned about than would normaly happen about change. Some problem focused psychologist feel that dreams not only concirn our views in our waking life but that dreams also give us the opportunity to resolve our issues in our dreams.
3. dreams as thinking (cognitive approach). Similar to problem solving