Alcohol abuse and related health problems is a leading killer of Native Americans on reservations and in cities alike. Some evidence suggests that the sociological etiology of problem drinking varies for urban and reservation Native Americans. The transition to urban life may be one factor responsible for problem drinking among urban Native Americans. The loss of traditional social ties and family bonds is anomie and promotes heavy drinking and related problems such as incidents with police. Problem drinking may also be exacerbated because Native American communities, urban or reservation, have neither acknowledged the problems of alcoholism nor discouraged excessive alcohol consumption. Indian bars are a venue for affirming ethnic identity within the community. Shared drinking experiences in a recognized Indian bar may be an important "leveling" mechanism for building ethnic solidarity. Shared drinking experiences among urban Native Americans may be "a way for one successful in the larger society to demonstrate to fellow Indians that he is still 'Indian'".
Native American criminality focuses on the alienation of urban life, the disorganizing influence of relocation, and the absence of traditional institutions for restraining individual behavior. The existing literature has failed to address some potentially unique characteristics of Native American criminal behavior. That Native Americans, at least those living on reservations, are subject to a special criminal code; there is a differential use of police force on reservations; and the Native American population is extremely young, and hence at risk for delinquent behavior.
The persistent finding that Native Americans lack the skills and especially the education to successfully compete in the job market underscores a pressing problem. In 1970, only 22% of Native American adults had completed high school, while 55% of white