Brain Plasticity- the ability of other parts of the brain to take over the functions of damaged regions. Declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize
Habituation- a gradual reduction in the strength of a response as the result of repetitive stimulation
Kwashiorkor- a disease usually appearing between 1and 3 years of age that is caused by a diet low in protein. Symptoms include an enlarged belly, swollen feet, hair loss, skin rash, and irritable, listless behavior.
Laterlaization- specialization of functions of the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
Marasmus- a disease usually appearing in the first year of life that is caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients that leads to a wasted condition of the body
Myelination- a process in which neural fibers are coated with an insulating fatty sheath called myelin that improves the efficiency of message transfer
Nonorganic failure to thrive- a growth disorder usually present by 18 months of age that is caused by lack of affection and stimulation
Synaptic pruning- loss of connective fibers by seldom-stimulated neurons, thereby returning them to an uncommitted state so they can support the development of future skills
Glial cells- cells serving the function of myelination
Neurons- nerve cells that store and transmit information
2. Yes, I believe that there are cultural variations in motor development because in more developed cultures babies are engaged in more and this in turn allows for a baby that is more apt to exploration. Whereas in less developed cultures, culture plays a bigger part in motor development as well as development in general.
4. The nutritional advantages of breastfeeding include the balance of fat and protein in breast milk, allows for a more healthy physical growth, and it ensures proper digestion because there are different bacteria in the intestines of breastfed babies than bottle-fed babies. The health advantages include a better immune system because with breastfeeding the mother passes antibodies to her child that protects it from illness. If the child does get sick, the antibodies that passed from the mother help to lessen the severity of the illness.
5. I believe that parent/child co-sleeping is essential for he development of the child because the parent and the child build a stronger bond. With infants I believe that it is a soothing mechanism and it may help a new baby to sleep longer. As the child reaches the 1 year mark, I believe that the child should be sleeping alone or at least start his/her night in their own bed.
6. The significance of myelination is neural messages can “jump” down the axon instead of having to travel down the whole length of the axon. Myelination is also part of the reason the brain gains size as a person gets older.
7. An example of plasticity is language. It is an example because as a person learns language parts of the brain becomes specialized to language.
8. The types of learning discussed in the chapter include classical conditioning, operant conditioning, habituation, and also imitation.
1. The major cognitive developments of the sensorimotor stage include repeating voluntary behavior, they begin to solve simple problems such as “hide-and-seek”, they learn the concept of object permanence, and they engage in mental representations.
2. The attention span grows longer and the child shifts from focusing on single features to more complex patterns and objects. The child’s memory grows, as they are now able to remember simple process such as how to play with a toy or other simple processes like that. The child is able to group items into more complex groups and not just by color or shape.
3. The mental testing approach allows for infants to be tested on developmental subjects such as cognitive development, language, and also motor development. The meaning of the infant intelligence scores is to show how a