She has developed her ideas to extend beyond the individual, withincreasing emphasis on multiperson situations, family and community groups in our society.Orem describes her theory as a general nursing theory, and indeed it has influenced nursingresearch and practice not only in the United States, but internationally (Taylor et al, 1998).In her theory, Orem defines the four concepts that constitute nursing’s metaparadigm, as proposed by Fawcett: human beings, environment, health, and nursing (Fawcett, 2005). In1971, Orem described a human being
(humanity) as “…an integrated whole composed of aninternal physical, psychologic, and social nature with varying degrees of self-care ability” (Chinn& Kramer, 2004). Orem later defines a human being as “a substantial or real unity whose partsare formed and attain perfection through the differentiation of the whole during the process of development.” (Orem, 1985, cited in Meleis, 1997). A human being has the capacity to reflect,symbolize, and use symbols. When referring to humans , Orem uses the terms individual, patient, multiperson unit, self-care agent, dependent-care agent (Fawcett, 2005).
In addressing the concept of health , Orem (1980, cited in Meleis, 1997, p. 396) says“health and healthy are terms used to describe living things… [it is when] they are structurallyand functionally whole or sound…includes that which make a