What is music?
Music is sound organized
What are the three levels of listening to music according to Aaron Copland? Explain each.
Sensual: the most basic level, our senses perceive and enjoy music without conscious consideration or intellectual involvement it usually serves as background music
Expressive: the second level, engages our mind and requires active attention , we attempt to apply meaning to the music
Musical Level : third level, perceiving music on this level implies that we need to focus the attention on the music itself , being observant and enjoying the interrelationships between melody, harmony, timbre, form, rhythm and texture.
The Elements of Music: Rhythm, Melody, Harmony, Timbre, Texture, and Form
A. Rhythm- the organization of time in music
1. Beat-the even steady pulse in music 2. Meter-the organization of beats into regular groupings 3. Time Signature-the amount and type of notes that each measure contains 4. Syncopation-occurs when the accent occurs on the unexpected beat Measure/Bar-a segment of time corresponding to a specific number of beats in which each beat is represented by a certain note or value 5. Tempo-the speed at which beats occur in music 6. Tempo markings-italian terms used to indicate tempos from very slow to very fast
7. Metronome Markings-markings that precisely indicate the speed of each beat. They are absolute and specific. They are given in beats per minute.
B. Melody-a series of notes that add up to a recogzible unit 1. tone- a sound that has a definite pitch
2. Pitch-the relative highness or lowness of a sound
3. Octave-two notes that are an interval of an eighth apart, have the same sound, and sound similar because they have a ratio of 1:2
4. Unison-production of music by several voices or instruments at the same pitch or octaves
5. Staff-five lines and four spaces on which music is notated
6. Clef- sign that fixes the tone represented by each line and space on the staff
7. Tonic/key note-another name for the first not eon the scale
8. Scale- ascending or descending pattern of half steps , whole steps ,or both
9. Major Scale-ascending pattern of steps as follows: whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half
10. Minor Scale-ascending pattern of steps as follows : whole, half, whole, whole, half, whole, whole
11. Key-the scale that the piece is based on
12. Accidental-a note whose pitch is not a member of a scale Flat-a tone that is to be performed one half step lower than noted Sharp-a tone that is to be performed one half step higher than noted Natural-an accidental which cancels previous accidentals and represents the unaltered pitch of a note 13. Motive-are very short musical ideas that are part of a melody
14. Phrase-section of a melody , comparable to a section or phrase of a sentence 15. Disjunct-move primarily by leaps
16. Conjunct-smooth melodies that move primarily by repeated notes and steps , they can have a few leaps
17. Diatonic-a scale composed of 7distinct pitch classes
18. Chromatic- a scale with 12 pitches , each semitone above or below another
C. Harmony-two or more notes sounding at the same time
1. Interval- the difference between two pitches 2. Consonance-the combination of notes that sound pleasant to most people when played at the same time
3. Dissonance-the combination of notes that sound harsh to most people 4. Chord-the ways in which harmony is organized and contain 3 or more different notes
5. Triad-three pitches and interval of a third part , can be built of any note or scale
6. Cadence-a two chord progression that occurs at the end of a phrase
D. Timbre-the tone color or quality f a sound
1. Voice- List the six major voice types in