Carl Gustav Jung was born on the 26 July 1875. He was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology. Jung created some of the best-known psychological concepts. Jung proposed and developed the concepts of extraversion and introversion, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. His work has been influential in psychiatry and in the study of religion, philosophy, archeology, anthropology, literature, and related fields.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular psychometric instrument, has been developed from Jung's theory of personality typology.
Carl Jung made the exploration of the "inner space" his life's work. He went equipped with a background in Freudian theory, with an apparently inexhaustible knowledge of mythology, religion, and philosophy. Jung was especially knowledgeable in the symbolism of complex mystical traditions such as Gnosticism, Alchemy, Kabala, and similar traditions in Hinduism and Buddhism. If anyone could make sense of the unconscious and its habit of revealing itself only in symbolic form, it would be Carl Jung.
Carl Jung approached personality and 'psychological types' (also referred to as Jung's psychological types) from a perspective of clinical psychoanalysis. He was one of the few psychologists in the twentieth century to maintain that development extends beyond childhood and adolescence through mid-life and into old age. He focused on establishing and developing a relationship between conscious and unconscious processes. Jung believed that there was a dialogue between the conscious and unconscious and without it the unconscious processes can weaken and even jeopardize the personality and this is seen in one of his central concepts of individuation.
He believed that individuation is a life long process of personal development that involves establishing a connection between the ego and the self, which could be brought to its highest realization if worked with and the unconscious was confronted. It is the psychological process of integrating the opposites, including the conscious with the unconscious, while still maintaining their relative autonomy.
He saw the human psyche as "by nature religious" and made this religiousness the focus of his explorations. Jung is one of the best- known contemporary contributors to dream analysis and symbolization.
Jung became a psychiatrist in 1900 and in 1904 he gained recognition through his research with the word association test. In 1907 he met Sigmund Freud, and became a psychoanalyst. In 1913 Jung become detached from Freud for a variety of reasons including Freud’s demands and ego centered approach to his own theories above any further research. He then established his own theory, called analytical psychology. Jung travelled extensively “to compare the dreams, mythology, folklore, art, and religion of indigenous people there with that from Europe, China, and India.”
It was out of Jung’s confrontation with the unconscious, both in himself and in his patients, that he slowly elaborated his psychology. In his 1921 work, “Personality Types”, Jung compared his four functions of personality to the four points on a compass. While a person faces one direction, he or she still uses the other points as a guide. Most people keep one function as the dominant one although some people may develop two over a lifetime. It is only the person who achieves self-realization that has completely developed all four functions. His book also acted as the compass by which Jung tried to understand how he differed from Freud and Adler, but more importantly, could begin to chart the internal world of people.
Jung's theory of personality types divides the psyche into three parts. The first is the ego, which Jung identifies with the conscious mind. The ego, according to Jung, is