Essay about Reality Is Broken

Submitted By jimmypeckerhead
Words: 1066
Pages: 5

Sociology Study Guide
Self-identity- physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society
Socialization- lifelong process of social interaction
Functionalist perspectives- based on the assumption that society is a stable, orderly system
Conflict perspectives- groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources
Symbolic Interactionist perspective- society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups
* id- component of personality that includes all of the individuals’ basic drives and needs that demand immediate gratification * ego- the rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of the id * superego- conscience, consists of the moral and ethical aspects of personality
4 stages of cognitive development: 1. Sensorimotor stage- (birth to age two) children understand the world only through sensory contact and immediate action 2. Preoperational stage- (age two to age seven) children begin to use words as mental symbols and to form mental images 3. Concrete operational stage- (age seven to eleven) children think in terms of tangible objects and actual events 4. Formal operational stage- (age twelve through adolescence) adolescents are able to engage in highly abstract thought and understand places, things, and events they have never seen
3 stages of moral development: 1. Preconventional level- (age seven to ten) children’s perceptions are based on punishment and obedience 2. Conventional level- (age ten through adolescence) people are most concerned with how they are perceived by their peers and with how one conforms to rules 3. Postconventional level- (few adults reach this level) people view normality in terms of individual rights; “moral conduct” is judged by principles based on human rights that transcend government and laws
Gilligan (female)
View on gender and moral development: male respondents are more likely to use abstract standards of right and wrong, while female respondents are more likely to be concerned about the consequences
Self-concept- the totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves
The looking-glass self: refers to the way in which a person’s sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others
* Role-taking- a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to understand the world from that person’s or group’s point of view * Significant others- persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of the self
3 Stages 1. Prepatory stage- (up to age 3) interactions lack meaning 2. Play stage-(age 3-5) children begin to see themselves in relation to others 3. Game stage- (early school years) children become more concerned about the demands and expectations of others and of the larger society * Generalized other- child’s awareness of the demands and expectations of the society * Agents of Socialization- the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society * Gender Socialization- aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male * Racial Socialization- contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one’s racial or ethnic status * Anticipatory Socialization- knowledge and skills are learned for future roles * Social devaluation- person or group is considered to have less social value * Ageism- prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age * Resocialization- learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one’s background and previous experience * Voluntary socialization- such as becoming a student, an employee, or a retiree * Involuntary socialization- against a person’s wishes (going to prison)