Note: Business students should use the RMIT Business style NOT the general Harvard style
Choosing a reference style 3
What is referencing? 3
Why reference? 3
When to reference? (Plagiarism) 3
RMIT University definition of plagiarism 4
What constitutes plagiarism? 4
What is the penalty for plagiarism? 4
In-text references: examples 5
Reference List 6
Authors: examples 7
Books: examples 8
Book chapter 8 e-book from a database 9 e-book from the Internet 9
Encyclopaedia or dictionary 9
Secondary citation 10
No date 10
Journal articles: examples 10
Journal article 10 e-journal article from a database 11 e-journal article from the internet 11
In press article 12
Magazine article – no author 12
Newspaper articles 12
Newspaper article 12
Newspaper article from a database 12
Newspaper article from a website 12
Internet sources 13
Discussion list message 13
Newsgroup message 13
Website documents 13
Course readings 14
Course readings from RMIT University Library reserve 14
Course readings from RMIT University Library e-reserve 14
Course readings from RMIT University Learning Hub 14
Government publications 14
Parliamentary debates 15
Australian Bureau of Statistics 15
Legislation and Legal cases 16
Legal cases 16
Other sources 16
Conference paper 16
Film, video, TV and radio program 17
Media release 17
Personal communication 18
The author-date system originated at Harvard University, and although they no longer produce a standard guide to referencing, a version of the author-date system is still commonly referred to as the Harvard style. Other author-date referencing styles include: Chicago, APA and MLA.
The Harvard Style of referencing is widely accepted in scholarly circles. Each reference is indicated in the text by the author and date of the publication cited, sometimes with added information such as page numbers. The full details of these references are listed at the end of the text in a Reference list.
There are many different styles or ways of using the Harvard or author-date system. This document is meant only as a guide. It is important that you check with your School as to what they require for referencing. You may be penalised for not conforming to your School’s requirements.
Further details and examples may be found in the Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002). Electronic resources are not adequately addressed in the Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002) and so the principles of author-date citing have been applied in developing those examples.
The information and examples are derived from the following source:
Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.
Choosing a reference style
The style (i.e. order in which the details of a reference are cited) may vary depending on the requirements of your department, lecturer or supervisor. Some Schools produce their own guidelines for citing references. Check with your School whether they have a preferred Referencing Style.
What is referencing?
Referencing an information source used in an academic work means to employ a standardised method of acknowledging that source. The full details of the source must be given. All information used in your assignment, thesis, etc., whether published, or unpublished, must be referenced.
When writing a piece of academic work (ie. essay, thesis, etc.) you are required to acknowledge the sources of information that you have used:
Ø to prove that your work has a substantial, factual basis
Ø to show the research you've done to reach your conclusions
Ø to allow your readers to identify and retrieve the references for their own use
Information obtained from the Internet is covered by copyright