This essay discusses the philosophies, concepts, and methodologies of research investigations. Research designs are contrasted and compared to assess benefits, limitations, and applications. Approaches to quantitative and qualitative studies are illustrated and explained. The operations and purposes of program evaluations and action research studies are elucidated. A6: Research Knowledge Assessment Research can be defined as a systematic method for formulating queries (Drew, Hardman, & Hosp, 2008, p. 4). This essay explores how these queries may be conceptualized, described, evaluated, and …show more content…
Conceptual and Theoretical Frameworks A framework can be created through concepts or theories (Lodico, Spaulding, & Voegtle, 2010, p. 13). A conceptual framework shows ideas or variables in a cogent and sequential manner, whereas a theoretical framework focuses on identifying the possible relationships among the ideas or concepts and develops theories for these relationships (Naizaro, 2012). These theories provide a foundation for the beginnings of an investigation and help maintain a focus for the direction of a study. A conceptual framework can also be defined as a structure that describes the natural progression of a phenomenon through a theoretical framework that gives an explanation of how some constituents of the phenomenon may be related (Camp, 2001). In summary, a conceptual framework may elucidate concepts of a study but it does not explain the relationships among the ideas or variables, whereas a theoretical framework can explain the associations among variables and how these associations relate to the research investigation (Science, n.d.).
Core Concepts of Research Design The research question is the basis for the research study and should include ethical guidelines (Lodico, Spaulding, & Voegtle, 2010, p. 388). It identifies dependent and independent variables in causal-comparative research and it targets variables that are expected to be related in correlational studies (pp. 388-389). In quantitative studies, the